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The Evolving Ruling Bargain in the Middle East Arabic Summary Report Center for International and Regional Studies
Gateways to the World: Port Cities in the Gulf
Library Associates Newsletter: Issue 114 Lauinger Library Campaign for the Library: Focus on the Finish; From the University Librarian: International Aspirations; Jessica Vanderhoff Receives Dean's Award; Library Celebrates Staff Excellence; Infrequently Asked Questions from the University Archivist; Jorg Schmeisser: Prints and Passages; Grateful Dead Concert on Campus, 1970
Studying Disadvantaged Youths in the Middle East: A Theoretical Framework Hashemi, Manata Disproportionate levels of youth unemployment and economic marginalization in the Middle East have prompted many regional observers to conclude that socioeconomically disadvantaged Middle Eastern youth are more prone to radicalization and thereby constitute a threat to national and international security. The general consensus in these accounts is that low levels of occupational opportunities leave poor youth more disposed to frustration and fatalism, which in turn are strongly linked to radical politics. Alternatively, scholars in the language of rational choice argue that these young people engage in a deliberate calculation of means and ends in order to attain the power and wealth necessary for upward mobility. These scholars posit poor youth as rational, autonomous agents whose goals are defined by individual interests and preferences. However, these respective theories are unable to account for 1) the absence of political radicalism among poor youth in many countries of the Middle East, and 2) the presence of seemingly irrational acts among these youth that neither maximize self-interest, nor necessarily reflect individual preferences. Given the shortcomings of each of these prevailing theories, this paper, instead, synthesizes these two approaches and assesses the social conduct of poor youth in the Middle East from the perspective of aspirations-bounded rationality. From this vantage point, the behaviors of poor youth are not determined by individual economic interests or by pure emotion, but by aspirations. This paper proposes that these youth struggle and create strategies to improve their lives that are conditioned by experience and observation of those who inform their social worlds.
Shakespeare's Constructicon Shore, Daniel This article first appeared in Shakespeare Quarterly, Volume 66, Number 2, Summer, 2015, pages 113-136.
Challenges for dynamic, heterogeneous networks in observational sciences Singh, Lisa Computer Science
The Methodological Role of Angst in Being and Time Withy, Katherine Heidegger’s analysis of the mood of angst is usually understood in terms of its contribution to the account of authenticity in Division II of Being and Time. I approach the analysis of angst from a different direction, by working out its methodological function in Division I. I distinguish inauthentic falling from the structural phenomenon of falling, and argue that the latter poses a methodological problem for Heidegger: if we are essentially entity-directed, how can we get the unity of our being in view? Heidegger overcomes this difficulty by analysing a mood that tunes us into the ontological: angst. I explain how angst provides this ontological insight, and show how analysis of it leads to questions of truth and reality. This provides a warrant for the placement of the analysis of angst in Division I. Philosophy
Authenticity and Heidegger's Antigone Withy, Katherine Sophocles’ Antigone is the only individual whom Heidegger names as authentic. But the usual interpretations of Heidegger’s ‘authenticity’ (as being-towards-death, taking responsibility for norms, world-historical creation, and a neo-Aristotelian phronēsis) either do not apply to Antigone or do not capture what Heidegger finds significant about her. By working through these failures, I develop an interpretation of Heideggerian authenticity that is adequate to his Antigone. The crucial step is accurately identifying the finitude to which Antigone authentically relates: what Heidegger calls ‘uncanniness’ (Unheimlichkeit). I argue that uncanniness names being’s presencing through self-withdrawal and that Antigone stands authentically towards this in her responsiveness to the call of being and her reticence at the end of explanation. In conclusion, I consider Sophocles’ own creative act, which bequeathed to the West an understanding of being and a vision of how to relate to it authentically. I argue that Sophocles’ status as a world-historical creator does not provide a competing picture of authenticity but must itself be understood as responsive and reticent. Philosophy
Using Large-scale Open Source Data to Identify Potential Forced Migration Wei, Y.; Taylor, A.; Yossinger, N.; Singewood, E.; Quinn, D.; Martin, S.; McGrath, S.; Collman, J.; Berkowitz, S.; Singh, Lisa Computer Science
Exploring graph mining approaches for dynamic heterogeneous networks Singh, Lisa Computer Science
Data cleansing and transformation of observational scientific data Singh, Lisa; Nelson, G.; Mann, J.; Coakes, A.; Krzyszczyk, E.; Herman, E. Computer Science
DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR DRUG DISCOVERY AND REPURPOSING IN ONCOLOGIC DISEASES AND OTHER ILLNESSES
DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR DRUG DISCOVERY AND REPURPOSING IN ONCOLOGIC DISEASES AND OTHER ILLNESSES Targeting disease-related proteins is important for drug discovery, yet target-based method have not been fruitful. Bottlenecks involve: (1) establishing biologically valid drug- protein target associations, and (2) assessing the physiologic effects of those interactions at the systems level. Here we develop novel computational methods for overcoming these challenges. For the accurate prediction of drug-target interactions, we investigate the ability of two independent proteochemometric methods entitled R-TMFS and ES-Screen to prioritize known drug binders over decoys for diverse sets of protein targets. R-TMFS is a docking-based method that incorporates molecule shape and physicochemical properties, whereas ES-Screen is an electrostatics-driven method that accentuates the role of electrostatics in biomolecular recognition and binding kinetics. R-TMFS and ES-Screen are also used to predict previously un-reported kinase targets for the anti-hookworm medication mebendazole. Follow-up in vitro binding assays confirm mebendazole inhibition of multiple kinases such as ABL1, JAK2, JNK3, and RAF1, attesting to the repurposing potential of mebendazole for various cancers. For higher-order physiologic contextualization of drug-target signatures, we devised a computational platform named NET-TMFS that annotates drugs with biological endpoint effects including protein-protein interactions, signaling pathways, molecular functions, and disease effects. NET-TMFS recapitulated over 50 drug-disease, 100 drug-pathway, and drug-PPI associations established in the literature. NET-TMFS also predicted potential carcinogenic effects of the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe, a phenomenon documented in clinical trials. In summary, we have developed novel computational methods for addressing major bottlenecks in the drug discovery process. We hope our methods will aid in finding effective therapeutics for many diseases with greater efficiency and lower costs. Ph.D.
HEMATOPOIETIC CELL POPULATION SEGREGATION THROUGH FULL-LENGTH TRANSCRIPTOME SEQUENCING “Progress in science results from new technologies, new discoveries and new ideas, probably in that order.” Nobel Laureate Sydney Brenner (1927 - ); Sequencing the human genome was a critical first step in setting the groundwork to understanding the molecular programming that is involved in transforming a cell from a healthy to a cancerous state. Cellular transcriptome complexity has become increasingly more apparent as technological advances have exposed us to its diversity. Full-length RNA sequencing is crucial for an unbiased analysis of transcriptome complexity. This complexity is due to posttranscriptional processing of primary transcripts that results in a variety of isoforms generated from the same genomic loci. Distinct cell lineages are defined by their transcript isoform expression profiles, and the annotation of cells can be derived from the expression of transcript isoforms that can result in functionally different proteins. Alternate splice site utilization provides cells with a powerful regulatory mechanism of gene expression that can impact the composition of the protein product, and influence the rate of translation of transcripts from multi-exon genes. The overall goal of this project was to delineate the hematopoietic transcriptome revealed by full-length sequencing and assess the shortcomings of transcriptome reconstruction using fragmented-read sequencing. The aims were to (a) evaluate the complexity of the hematopoietic transcriptome using full-length RNA sequencing, to (b) compare the full-length RNA-sequencing transcriptome with the reconstructed transcriptome from fragmented-read sequencing and to (c) evaluate whether hematopoietic cell subpopulations show distinct transcriptome patterns. Sequencing and reconstructing transcripts through transcriptome reconstruction from fragmented read sequencing have advanced our understanding of the transcriptome. Here we show that full-length transcriptome sequencing is necessary to faithfully expose the transcriptome and understand its complexities. Abundance information and pathway analysis support this. Also, full-length sequencing illustrates open reading frames that code for contiguous canonical or fusion proteins that can be validated with peptides. This transcriptome diversity is consistent with distinct phenotypes of cell subpopulations present in tissues. Accurate transcriptome measurement builds a foundation that can be relied upon to ensure higher success rates for therapeutics and lower false discovery rates for biomarkers of disease.; The analysis of transcripts of a set of selected genes as well as the potential for posttranscriptional processing predicts for a highly complex transcriptome and an abundance of hitherto unknown protein isoforms. Classic approaches have not allowed full testing of this hypothesis due to limitations in sequencing lengths. Taking advantage of full-length sequencing technology provides us with an opportunity to uncover transcripts that cannot be obtained through traditional transcript reconstruction techniques. Ph.D.
Interreligious Debates, Rational Theology, and the ʿUlamaʾ in the Public Sphere: Muḥammad Qāsim Nānautvī and the Making of Modern Islam in South Asia
Interreligious Debates, Rational Theology, and the ʿUlamaʾ in the Public Sphere: Muḥammad Qāsim Nānautvī and the Making of Modern Islam in South Asia The nineteenth century was a time of tremendous change for Islamic intellectual traditions in South Asia in an era of colonialism, the decline of traditional authority, and the transformations of modernity. In spite of these challenges, Muslim scholars, theologians, and intellectuals proved to be particularly creative in this period, laying the foundations for the rethinking and reconfiguration of Islamic intellectual traditions in a modern context. The perspectives adopted by modernist and ‘fundamentalist’ Muslims to these modern developments and new contexts have been widely studied. However, the intellectual responses of representatives of the historically continuous classical tradition, the religious scholars (‘ulamā’), theologians, and Sufis, has received far less attention.; Mawlānā Muḥammad Qāsim Nanautvī (1833-1880), among the most important figures of modern Sunni Islam in South Asia, was a prominent religious scholar, philosophical theologian, and Sufi. Although he is best remembered for being the co-founder of the school of Deoband, the most influential South Asian Islamic seminary of the last two centuries, his participation in interreligious debates with Christian missionaries and Hindu reformers, including the first public Hindu-Muslim polemics, and his articulation of a rational theology for the public sphere are equally significant. Nanautvī’s career and writings provide an insightful lens onto the ways Islamic intellectual traditions came to be reconfigured by the rise of the public sphere, the emergence of reified and oppositional religious identities in South Asia, and the increasing popularity of modern rationalism and empiricism. Nanautvī’s work demonstrates how a Muslim scholar ‘translated’ classical Islamic intellectual traditions, in his case, Islamic philosophy (ḥikmah) and theology, into a new discourse for modern public and pluralistic contexts where Muslim scholars not only had to engage other Muslim scholars, as they did in the past, but to present and justify ‘Islam’ to new Muslim publics as well as non-Muslim scholars and publics. Such a discourse represented a ‘public theology’ that situated and justified Islam as a rational religion vis-à-vis both the claims of other religions and those of modern thought and can serve as a critical example of how Islamic traditions have negotiated continuity and change in the modern world. Ph.D.
El(la) Mapping: An Integrated Account of Learning Context, Feedback and Agreement Morphology in the Processing of OclVS Sentences in Advanced L2 Spanish
El(la) Mapping: An Integrated Account of Learning Context, Feedback and Agreement Morphology in the Processing of OclVS Sentences in Advanced L2 Spanish Previous literature has shown that beginning and intermediate English-speaking learners persistently misinterpret O-cliticVS sentences in Spanish, preferring word order over morphology when assigning semantic functions to the NPs of non-canonical sentences. Following the Competition Model (Bates & MacWhinney, 1982, 1989; MacWhinney, 2012), this dissertation investigated from an on-line and off-line account whether English-speaking advanced learners of Spanish are also prone to such misinterpretations, and whether their reconfiguration of L1 processing strategies benefits from: (a) mismatches in number agreement morphology, (b) immersion experience, and (c) computer-delivered feedback.; Three self-paced readings were conducted. In Experiment 1 (N=38), matching/mismatching number agreement between clitic and verb was manipulated to measure the usefulness of contrastive agreement to overcome word order bias. Experiment 2 (N=20) investigated whether a 5-week Study Abroad program promoted learners’ OclVS sentence development. Experiment 3 (N=90) investigated potential interactions between agreement conditions and the provision or absence of computer-delivered feedback.; Results showed that advanced learners continued to rely on word order when interpreting OclVS sentences, but different agreement conditions were not processed alike. In Experiment 1, accuracy significantly improved in the mismatching condition in which the morphological cue was on the verb. Participants also tended to present longer reading times in the verb of ClsgVplSpl structures. In Experiment 2, learners significantly improved at Week 5 and paid more attention to the verb and post-verbal subject, which are highly informative. In Experiment 3, the [+ Feedback] group outperformed the [- Feedback] group, which only received practice decoding manipulated input. Also, the [+ Feedback] group exhibited a speedup across experimental trials in the baseline condition (ClsgVsgSsg) whereas the [- Feedback] group exhibited a significant slowdown in the mismatching ClsgVplSpl condition.; This dissertation has implications for research on intra-subject L2 processing variation and emerging bilingualism. It also contributes to the debate on whether short-term studies overseas influence L2 grammar skills. Finally, the extent to which exposure to manipulated input alone helps learners reconfigure their L2 processing strategies is discussed along with feedback’s potential role in enhancing this process. Ph.D.
Perception and Production of Intonation among English-Spanish Bilingual Speakers at Different Proficiency Levels
Perception and Production of Intonation among English-Spanish Bilingual Speakers at Different Proficiency Levels This dissertation examined the perception and production of intonation among 55 English-native speakers of Spanish at three proficiency levels (low, high, and very high). Their performance was compared with monolingual speakers of Spanish (n=17) and English (n=17), and English-Spanish early bilinguals (heritage speakers, n=16). The target form was the intonational contour in neutral declarative utterances in Spanish, examined at two tonal events, namely prenuclear peak alignment and final boundary tone height. The study adhered to the theoretical principles of the Autosegmental-Metrical approach (Beckman & Pierrehumbert, 1986; Pierrehumbert, 1980, 2000). Participants completed an imitation task aimed at locating potential categorical shifts in the perception of both tonal events and two production tasks varying in speaking style (sentence reading and storytelling). Results revealed a marked contrast between Spanish and English in perception and production of both tonal events. Spanish speakers generally preferred later alignment of prenuclear peaks and lower height of final boundary tone. In turn, second language (L2) and early bilingual speakers tended to produce values in the middle range between Spanish and English. Performance of low-proficiency speakers generally approximated English monolingual speakers, while L2 speakers of very high proficiency produced values at the same level of heritage speakers under most measures. As regards the role of speaking style in production, some minor effects were found in prenuclear alignment, while no effects were obtained in final boundary tone. A strong relationship between production and perception was also found for prenuclear alignment but not for final boundary tone. Results also seemed to support some predictions made by the Speech Learning Model (Flege, 1995). Findings are discussed from the point of view of cross-linguistic influence, effects of high proficiency on L2 phonology, tonal representations for Spanish and English, and the link between production and perception in L2 prosody. Ph.D.
Readiness to learn: Characteristics associated with implicit learning aptitude Cognitive frailty is one of the biggest threats to healthy aging, and yet our basic understanding of cognitive aging is limited in at least two ways. First, while group differences in the cognitive performance of younger vs. older adults are well-documented, we understand little about the inter-individual variability occurring within age groups, which implies that some individuals are aging more successfully than others in the cognitive domain. Additionally, most cognitive aging research to date has focused on explicit cognitive functions and has neglected an entire subclass of implicit functions that have implications for maintaining health.; To begin addressing these limitations, this dissertation examined characteristics related to implicit learning aptitude. The first study showed that a neural characteristic--the strength of intrinsic connectivity between two learning-relevant brain regions (caudate and medial temporal lobe; MTL)--predicted how well young adults subsequently learned a complex regularity. This finding suggests that communication between learning-relevant regions prior to learning is important for understanding inter-individual variability in learning outcomes. The second study examined a behavioral characteristic—dispositional mindfulness—and revealed a novel negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit learning in two healthy adult samples, suggesting that mindfulness may not benefit implicit cognitive functioning. We posited that the negative association between these two variables might be due to the fact that the balance of neural systems supporting mindfulness is not optimal for supporting implicit learning. The final study tested this hypothesis by examining how the connectivity of learning-relevant regions during learning related to individual differences in both learning and dispositional mindfulness in a sample of healthy older adults. Results showed that stronger connectivity between the caudate and MTL was positively related to implicit learning, and negatively related to mindfulness. Further, the strength of this connectivity mediated the relationship between mindfulness and learning, suggesting that this might be the neural mechanism by which mindfulness impairs this cognitive process. Taken together, the findings advance our understanding of which behavioral and neural characteristics are related to individuals’ propensity, or “readiness”, to acquire complex regularities implicitly, and suggest that such characteristics might modulate the complex interaction between learning systems. Ph.D.
The Problem With Social Safety Nets: Policy or Psychology? Correia, Tricia
Library Associates Newsletter: Issue 113 Lauinger Library Booth Family Center for Special Collections Opens; From the University Librarian: Commencement; Your Named Endowment: Ensuring the Future; Crisis in America with Ray LaHood; Roosevelt's Second Act with Richard Moe; Patricia Stonesifer and Martha's Table; Clinch Calkins Papers; Undiscovered Printmakers; Lynd Ward's Cup of Sky
The New Porn Platform: Standards Gaps in ‘Revenge Porn’ Policy and Protection Doom, Jilanne