Recent Submissions to the Georgetown University Institutional Repository
This collection contains scholarship produced by the faculty and students at Georgetown University.
Updated: 25 min 54 sec ago
Mutual Empowerment? - Examining the Power Relationship Between Overseas Filipino Workers and the Motherland
Mutual Empowerment? - Examining the Power Relationship Between Overseas Filipino Workers and the Motherland Wozniak, Audrey
Beijing’s Challenge to the Global Financial Architecture Wihtol, Robert
China’s Institution Building - Leading the Way to Asian Integration Wang, Zheng
Adhering, Distancing, or Waffling? - Understanding a New Dilemma in the U.S.-Japan Alliance Teraoka, Ayumi
Alignment Minus Alliance - India’s China Quandary on Alternative Institution Building Panda, Jagannath P.
Cybersecurity in Asia and the Role of U.S. Leadership Lewis, James; Crouch, Lara; Mark, Anastasia
Identifying Network Effects in the Adoption of Sanitary Latrines Mallah, Farah Household decisions are highly influenced by social interactions. In this paper I identify the effect of social interactions (networks) on the likelihood of a rural household in Vietnam installing a sanitary latrine between 2012 and 2013. I do so using the baseline and midterm surveys collected to evaluate the CHOBA intervention. 2,139 households were surveyed in the provinces of Hai Duong and Tien Giang. The survey was not specifically designed to capture network effects. Therefore, I use indirect measures based on the information provided and previous literature. The reference group in this paper is uniquely defined by proximity and economic stratum. Higher weighting is given to closer households to the household in question, or “near” neighbors, and only those within the same economic stratum are included. I capture network effects by examining the correlation between the prevalence of “near” households who adopted the sanitary latrine before the baseline and the likelihood of the household in question adopting the sanitary latrine after the baseline. I find that a higher prevalence of sanitary latrines among “near” neighbors has a positive and significant effect on the likelihood of installing the sanitary latrine in the second phase. This network effect is stronger among households with lower access to formal sources of information and among poor households. In addition, I look at the frequency of circulation of information through “word of mouth” and the influence of receiving the information on the benefits of sanitary latrines from family and/or acquaintance. Both of these network-effect measures come out to be insignificant among poor households. The results presented in this paper point to the necessity of controlling for network effects especially among households highly dependent on informal services. The results also encourage the use of public events to recognize households’ installations of the sanitary latrine.
Unconcious Communication in Shakespeare: "Et Tu, Brute?" Echoes "Eloi, Eloi Lama Sabachthani?" Waugaman, Richard M.
Unconcious Communication and Literature Waugaman, Richard M.
Shakespeare's Bible: A Personal Odyssey Waugaman, Richard M.
Sonnet 6 and the First Marked Passage in De Vere's Bible Waugaman, Richard M.
The Pseudonymous Author of Shakespeare's Works Waugaman, Richard M.
A New 1569 Poem by Arthur Golding,' Re-attributed to Edward de Vere (Shakespeare) Waugaman, Richard M.
Dating Macbeth: A 1603 Source for 'Equivocation' as an Alleged Gunpowder Plot Allusion in Macbeth Waugaman, Richard M.
A Source for 'Rememberance of Things Past' in Sonnet 30 Waugaman, Richard M.
New Discoveries about the Authorship of Shakespeare's Works Waugaman, Richard M.
A 1578 Poem about Edward de Vere [Shakespeare] Waugaman, Richard M.
Psalm Echoes in Shakespeare's "1 Henry VI," "Richard II," and "Edward III" Waugaman, Richard M. This note will supplement past work which documents that Sternhold and Hopkins’ Whole Book of Psalms (WBP) was a major literary source for Shakespeare’s plays, Sonnets, and The Rape of Lucrece. I will examine three history plays, two of which are of disputed authorship. Since frequent echoes of WBP have not yet been found in other early modern authors, their presence in a play supports Shakespeare’s authorship. In his history plays, allusions to the WBP serve to reinforce Shakespeare’s providential interpretation of English history. Historical events are subtly portrayed as fulfilling biblical models and precedents. Insofar as the embattled English are likened to the Israelites, this parallel claims divine favour for the English. For believers, the Psalms are often considered to be the most personal book of the Bible. Shakespeare’s echoes of them therefore carry special weight in disclosing ‘all the secrets’ of his characters’ hearts. Evidence that the WBP was a major literary source for Shakespeare is cumulative, building on past discoveries.
CIRCUMVENTING ANTIGEN LOSS TO POTENTIATE CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY Cancer cells become resistant to monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy when they lose the cell surface antigens that mAbs target. To circumvent immune escape and maximize the efficacy of mAb therapy, new approaches to mitigate or perhaps even counteract antigen loss are necessary. Herein, we discuss three major mechanisms of antigen loss: trogocytosis, internalization and transcriptional down-regulation, and strategies to thwart cancer resistance caused by antigen loss.; First, we designed, generated and evaluated a novel type of antibody-drug conjugate that combines a cytotoxic payload with the Fc region of IgM antibodies to capitalize on the overexpression of the IgM Fc receptor by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. This Fc-derived drug conjugate was selectively toxic for primary leukemic B-cells but not autologous normal T-cells ex vivo and in a murine xenograft model of CLL. This work provides proof-of-principle for targeted drug delivery by Fc-derived drug conjugates into cells that overexpress the IgM Fc receptor.; Second, we evaluated interactions between the kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and anti-CD20 mAbs. We demonstrated that ibrutinib causes transcriptional down-regulation of CD20 on CLL cells, but also preserves complement labeling of CLL cells through CD55 down-regulation and protects CLL cell surface CD20 by inhibiting trogocytosis. Thus, we uncovered putative mechanisms by which kinase inhibitors may augment mAb function.; Third, to allow for retargeting of CLL cells that lost antigen, we generated mAbs directed against the complement component C3d. We demonstrated that anti-C3d mAbs specifically bind to and eliminate CLL cells that are labelled by complement proteins during in vivo anti-CD20 mAb administration. Furthermore, we observed the anti-C3d mAbs can amplify their binding to CLL cells by mediating de novo complement deposition. These data suggest that anti-C3d mAbs represent a universal means of potentiating mAb therapy and eliminating residual cancer cells that have lost antigen.; Together, these findings improve our understanding of antigen loss and could translate into more effective mAb cancer therapies. Specifically, the work presented herein may lead to the development and optimization of combination therapies that can yield deeper and more durable responses in cancer patients. Ph.D.
Dalit Christians and Caste Consciousness in Pakistan This study explores caste discrimination in Pakistan against untouchable (Dalit) converts to Christianity. During the nineteenth century in India, many Dalits converted to Christianity to escape caste persecution. In the 1870s in Punjab, a mass movement to Protestant Christianity flourished among the Dalit Chuhra caste. The Chuhras were the largest menial caste in Punjab and engaged in degrading occupations including sweeping and sanitation work. By the 1930s, almost the entire Chuhra caste converted to Protestant Christianity. In 1947, during the partition of India, the majority of Chuhra converts in Punjab became part of the Protestant community in Pakistan. After Partition, many uneducated Chuhras were confined to menial jobs in the sanitation industry. Today, the stigma of Dalit ancestry is a distinct feature of social discrimination against Chuhra Christians in Pakistan.; `Caste consciousness' in Pakistan is connected to norms of purity and pollution. While not as pronounced as India, purity and pollution in Pakistan relates to the concept of pak (clean) and na-pak (unclean). Because of degrading occupations as sweepers and sanitation workers, many Chuhra Christians in Pakistan are associated with `pollution.' This leads to multiple forms of social discrimination. Chuhra Christians respond to caste persecution through various modes. Through an analysis of church sermons, I argue that Chuhra Christians create `counter-narratives' as a form of protest against caste discrimination. These `counter-narratives' focus on veiling caste identity and creating a new genealogical history for their community that is not connected to Dalit ancestry. These counter-narratives also affect the development of `folk theology' which focuses on the concept of izzat or `respect.' Church sermons reveal that izzat has a theological dimension and shapes Chuhra Christian self-understanding in Pakistan. Ph.D.