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Sonnet 6 and the First Marked Passage in De Vere's Bible Waugaman, Richard M.
The Pseudonymous Author of Shakespeare's Works Waugaman, Richard M.
A New 1569 Poem by Arthur Golding,' Re-attributed to Edward de Vere (Shakespeare) Waugaman, Richard M.
Dating Macbeth: A 1603 Source for 'Equivocation' as an Alleged Gunpowder Plot Allusion in Macbeth Waugaman, Richard M.
A Source for 'Rememberance of Things Past' in Sonnet 30 Waugaman, Richard M.
New Discoveries about the Authorship of Shakespeare's Works Waugaman, Richard M.
A 1578 Poem about Edward de Vere [Shakespeare] Waugaman, Richard M.
Psalm Echoes in Shakespeare's "1 Henry VI," "Richard II," and "Edward III" Waugaman, Richard M. This note will supplement past work which documents that Sternhold and Hopkins’ Whole Book of Psalms (WBP) was a major literary source for Shakespeare’s plays, Sonnets, and The Rape of Lucrece. I will examine three history plays, two of which are of disputed authorship. Since frequent echoes of WBP have not yet been found in other early modern authors, their presence in a play supports Shakespeare’s authorship. In his history plays, allusions to the WBP serve to reinforce Shakespeare’s providential interpretation of English history. Historical events are subtly portrayed as fulfilling biblical models and precedents. Insofar as the embattled English are likened to the Israelites, this parallel claims divine favour for the English. For believers, the Psalms are often considered to be the most personal book of the Bible. Shakespeare’s echoes of them therefore carry special weight in disclosing ‘all the secrets’ of his characters’ hearts. Evidence that the WBP was a major literary source for Shakespeare is cumulative, building on past discoveries.
CIRCUMVENTING ANTIGEN LOSS TO POTENTIATE CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY Cancer cells become resistant to monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy when they lose the cell surface antigens that mAbs target. To circumvent immune escape and maximize the efficacy of mAb therapy, new approaches to mitigate or perhaps even counteract antigen loss are necessary. Herein, we discuss three major mechanisms of antigen loss: trogocytosis, internalization and transcriptional down-regulation, and strategies to thwart cancer resistance caused by antigen loss.; First, we designed, generated and evaluated a novel type of antibody-drug conjugate that combines a cytotoxic payload with the Fc region of IgM antibodies to capitalize on the overexpression of the IgM Fc receptor by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. This Fc-derived drug conjugate was selectively toxic for primary leukemic B-cells but not autologous normal T-cells ex vivo and in a murine xenograft model of CLL. This work provides proof-of-principle for targeted drug delivery by Fc-derived drug conjugates into cells that overexpress the IgM Fc receptor.; Second, we evaluated interactions between the kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and anti-CD20 mAbs. We demonstrated that ibrutinib causes transcriptional down-regulation of CD20 on CLL cells, but also preserves complement labeling of CLL cells through CD55 down-regulation and protects CLL cell surface CD20 by inhibiting trogocytosis. Thus, we uncovered putative mechanisms by which kinase inhibitors may augment mAb function.; Third, to allow for retargeting of CLL cells that lost antigen, we generated mAbs directed against the complement component C3d. We demonstrated that anti-C3d mAbs specifically bind to and eliminate CLL cells that are labelled by complement proteins during in vivo anti-CD20 mAb administration. Furthermore, we observed the anti-C3d mAbs can amplify their binding to CLL cells by mediating de novo complement deposition. These data suggest that anti-C3d mAbs represent a universal means of potentiating mAb therapy and eliminating residual cancer cells that have lost antigen.; Together, these findings improve our understanding of antigen loss and could translate into more effective mAb cancer therapies. Specifically, the work presented herein may lead to the development and optimization of combination therapies that can yield deeper and more durable responses in cancer patients. Ph.D.
Dalit Christians and Caste Consciousness in Pakistan This study explores caste discrimination in Pakistan against untouchable (Dalit) converts to Christianity. During the nineteenth century in India, many Dalits converted to Christianity to escape caste persecution. In the 1870s in Punjab, a mass movement to Protestant Christianity flourished among the Dalit Chuhra caste. The Chuhras were the largest menial caste in Punjab and engaged in degrading occupations including sweeping and sanitation work. By the 1930s, almost the entire Chuhra caste converted to Protestant Christianity. In 1947, during the partition of India, the majority of Chuhra converts in Punjab became part of the Protestant community in Pakistan. After Partition, many uneducated Chuhras were confined to menial jobs in the sanitation industry. Today, the stigma of Dalit ancestry is a distinct feature of social discrimination against Chuhra Christians in Pakistan.; `Caste consciousness' in Pakistan is connected to norms of purity and pollution. While not as pronounced as India, purity and pollution in Pakistan relates to the concept of pak (clean) and na-pak (unclean). Because of degrading occupations as sweepers and sanitation workers, many Chuhra Christians in Pakistan are associated with `pollution.' This leads to multiple forms of social discrimination. Chuhra Christians respond to caste persecution through various modes. Through an analysis of church sermons, I argue that Chuhra Christians create `counter-narratives' as a form of protest against caste discrimination. These `counter-narratives' focus on veiling caste identity and creating a new genealogical history for their community that is not connected to Dalit ancestry. These counter-narratives also affect the development of `folk theology' which focuses on the concept of izzat or `respect.' Church sermons reveal that izzat has a theological dimension and shapes Chuhra Christian self-understanding in Pakistan. Ph.D.
A Place Between Two Places: The Qur'an's Intermediate State and the Early History of the Barzakh For those who believe in a future resurrection of the body, there naturally arises the question of what happens after death but before the end of time. This condition is the intermediate state. For most Muslims, the intermediate state is called the barzakh. It is a fantastical and frightening time in the grave, often equated to Purgatory in Christianity. Muslims throughout history and today have discussed this belief and expressed it in many forms. In the theological turmoil of the early Islamic Middle Ages, it even became a touchstone of orthodoxy: to be a true Muslim was to believe in the barzakh. But where does the medieval/modern belief in the barzakh come from? While the word barzakh does appear in the Qur'an three times, it is never explained there in detail. The Qur'an's primal audience is expected to understand this word without further comment. Using the methodologies of comparative religion and oral compositional forms (ring structure, chiasms, parallelisms), this project aims to show what the Qur'an meant by barzakh in the 7th century. A long study will be given on the Qur'an's eighteenth sura, al-Kahf. Fifteen other suras will be examined as well. I will argue that the Qur'anic barzakh is an eschatological cosmology designed specifically to nullify saint cults and the cult of the divine Christ by putting the dead into a sleep state. From here, the belief in the barzakh will be shown passing through early Islamic history and culminating in the distinctive eschatological claims of the Islamic Middle Ages. Ph.D.
AVATARES DE LA AGENCIA Y RESISTENCIA INDIGENA: TITU CUSI YUPANQUI (15??-1571) Y ESTERCILIA SIMANCA (1976)
AVATARES DE LA AGENCIA Y RESISTENCIA INDIGENA: TITU CUSI YUPANQUI (15??-1571) Y ESTERCILIA SIMANCA (1976) The dissertation proposes a comparative analysis of two indigenous authors who wrote more than four centuries apart: Inca Titu Cusi Yupanqui from 16th century Peru, and a 21st century female Wayuu writer, Estercilia Simanca from Colombia. The focus of the research is the indigenous perspective of colonialism in America; both writers were witnesses to particular circumstances and wrote about them in Spanish. Their texts are forms of agency and resistance against colonial/postcolonial oppression respectively. For the indigenous perspective, the European arrival to the “New World” in 1492 meant the destruction of their culture, ways of life, and in many cases death itself. Yet, indigenous peoples were not passive victims of that history. During the 16th century, Titu Yupanqui’s people confronted and fought against the invaders, and in the 21st century, Estercilia Simanca’s community continues to resist its disappearance. These two indigenous writers severely condemn the colonizers, and my research aims to demonstrate how these two authors play an important role in the preservation of their cultures, and to underscore the relevance of the studying and teaching of indigenous authors. Ph.D.
Towards a Transnational Aesthetic in Latin American Literature This thesis looks at the representation of national and transnational spaces in contemporary Latin American literature. In doing so, it argues that contemporary writing expands both the geographical imaginary of the physical spaces of the state and more significantly, frequently alters the conceptual envisioning of nation through unsettling its conventionally understood links to history, language, and identity. I develop the notion of literary transnationalism as an emerging aesthetic, defined by its handling of space, time and social cohesion. I argue that the region's contemporary literature moves away from the clean parameters of nation and into bi-national, multi-national, de-national, post-national, extra-national, and virtual domains. This framework includes: 1) migration-related texts 2) multi-territorial texts that traverse many geographies 3) nationally ambiguous or undefined texts, including Marc Augé's non-places 4) and texts imbedded in extra-national and virtual realms. I define space as a finite system of representation with imagined limits, be they geographical, national, linguistic or digital.; In order to study the spatial aesthetics of transnationalism, I begin by looking at three migration-themed texts from Brazil in my first chapter, Luiz Ruffato's Estive em Lisboa e lembrei de você (2009), Wilson Bueno's Mar Paraguayo (1992), and Oscar Nadasato's Nihonjin (2011). Specifically I argue that contemporary migration-themed novels disrupt narrative time-space cohesion by obscuring the frontiers between the national and the transnational. In the following chapter, I study the interplay among speed, mobility and power in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 and its theatrical adaptation by Spanish director Àlex Rigola. Seeing the two works in dialogue, I focus on the place of stasis and non-mobility as a counterpoint to speed and their implications for transnationalism. In the third chapter, I turn to Bernardo Carvalho’s Teatro (1998) and Gilberto Noll’s Harmada (1993), exploring the contrast between spatial ambiguity, and ruins and decaying spaces. I propose that ruin acts as an affront to the flattening processes of globalization in the two novels. To conclude, I examine two collections of literary blogs in Spanish and Portuguese, the Brazilian publishing house, Companhia das Letras’ Amores Expressos blogs, as well as Elboomeran(g) a vast literary blog in Spanish. Employing both close and distant readings, I show how online literary writing elucidates the poetics and spatial fluidity vital to contemporary transnationalism. Ph.D.
A longitudinal study on the role of lexical stress and motivation in the perception and production of L2 Spanish stop consonants
A longitudinal study on the role of lexical stress and motivation in the perception and production of L2 Spanish stop consonants This study investigated the perception and production of two L2 stop consonants, examining the importance of lexical stress and motivation to learners' ability to discriminate and produce Spanish /b/ and /p/. Longitudinal data was collected from 26 English-speaking adults enrolled in a second-semester Spanish course at the time of recruitment. On five occasions over a year-long period spanning nearly three semesters of Spanish instruction, participants completed a discrimination task and two production tasks: a sentence formation task and a sentence reading task. Once per semester, they also completed a language contact questionnaire, a quantitative motivation questionnaire operationalizing aspects of the L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei, 2009), and a qualitative questionnaire eliciting information on their language learning goals and beliefs.; For each of four contrasts crossing stress and position in the word, I calculated d' as a measure of participants' ability to discriminate the stops (Macmillan & Creelman, 2005). On the production data, I took VOT measurements from word-initial targets and C:V intensity ratio measurements, which index degree of lenition (Hualde, Simonet, & Nadeu, 2011), from word-medial targets using Praat software (Boersma & Weenik, 2012).; In characterizing the findings, both accuracy and stability were taken into account. Learners developed short-lag /p/ more quickly than lead-lag /b/, but the lead-lag category proved more resilient after a brief hiatus from Spanish during Winter Break. In contrast, there was little development of word-medial stops at the group level, though some individuals succeeded in producing targetlike C:V intensity ratios, indicating that they had acquired the phonological distribution of stops and approximants in Spanish. Consequently, phonetic detail (i.e., VOT) may be easier to acquire than phonological alternations (i.e., lenition).; Regarding stress and motivation, the primary predictors of interest, the former was more related to performance and the latter to development. Participants' discriminated stops more readily in stressed syllables and produced medial /b/ with greater degrees of lenition in unstressed syllables. In terms of motivation, a stronger ideal L2 self was negatively related to VOT development. This finding suggests that at lower instructional levels, learners likely prioritize grammar and vocabulary, potentially excluding pronunciation from their motivational systems. Ph.D.
CIRS Newsletter 18 Center for International and Regional Studies]
Legionaries Living in Lutetia: A Study of the Socio-Economic Effects of the Roman Army during the Principate
Legionaries Living in Lutetia: A Study of the Socio-Economic Effects of the Roman Army during the Principate Wagner, Brian
Jihad and Jihadn’t: Emerging Parallels in Twentieth-Century Holy War Propaganda Layfield, Philip