This is the second acquisition of the Martin F. Herz Papers (see finding aid by Margaret H. McAleer, February 1984, for first acquisition).

Material includes congratulatory correspondence to Ambassador Herz on his appointment as U.S. ambassador to Bulgaria (1974-77); a large series of lectures (including research notes and speech outlines) given as the director of the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy at the School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University (1978-83). A most remarkable part of the collection consists of the progaganda leaflets used by the Allies against the Axis powers, Germany and Italy as part of the psychological warfare campaign launched by the U.S. War Department during the Second World War.

Because of his general background and language skills, Herz was assigned to psychological warfare operations during the war. He became an authority on surrender, capture, and desertion, authoring the majority of the propaganda leaflets dropped on the enemy. The leaflets in this collection were all written by Herz.

Prior to his assignment to psychological warfare, Herz had participated in the Anzio landings in Italy. During the war, he attained the rank of major and was decorated on March 29, 1950 with the Purple Heart for wounds received during operations in the Mediterranean Theater on April 25, 1944; as well as with a Bronze Star Medal awarded on June 17 1949, for meritorious achievement in ground operations in the European Theater, June 28, 1944 to April 1, 1945. Certificates for both decorations are included in this collection (Folders 2:41 and 2:42).

Herz entered the U.S. Foreign Service in 1946. Over the years he was stationed at embassies in Austria, France, Cambodia, and Japan (see chronology following). From 1963 to 1967, he was counselor for political affairs at the U.S. embassy in Tehran. his tour was significant for the many reports he cabled to the State Department in Washington relating his observations and concern about the stability of Iran's Pahlavi monarchy. Some of these cables are included in this collection (Folder 1:22).

In 1968, after the Tet Offensive, Herz was posted to Saigon as political affairs minister-counselor. Two years later, back in Washington, he served as senior deputy assistant-secretary of state for international organizational affairs. In 1974, Herz was appointed U.S. ambassador to Bulgaria, in which capacity he served until retirement in 1977. In 1979 he was presented with the State Department's Superior Honor Award in recognition of 38 years of service (Folder (9:3). In later years, the ambassador maintained his connection with the Foreign Service through membership in the American Foreign Service Association in which he served as vice chairman and director.

In 1978, Ambassador Herz joined Georgetown University as director of the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy. He taught many courses on the Cold War and modern diplomacy. His research, notes, and outlines for many of his lectures comprise part of this colleciton (Folders 3:13-3:50).

Throughout his long career, in addition to his official duties, Ambassador Herz wrote and edited many books on diplomacy. These included the titles listed below. The manuscripts and working files containing corespondence with contributors and publishers for several are included in this collecitons.

The Golden Ladle (1945)

A Short History of Cambodia from the Days of Angkor to the Present (1958)

Beginnings of the Cold War (1966)

David Bruce's "Long Telegram" of July 3, 1951 (1978)

Decline of the West? George Kennan and his Critics, ed. by Herz (1978)

How the Cold War is Taught: Six American History Books Examined (1978)

A View from Tehran: A Diplomatist Looks at the Shah's Regime (1979)

Contacts with the Opposition: A Symposium, ed. by Herz (1979)

The Prestige Press and the crhistmas Bombing, 1972: Images and Reality in Vietnam (1980)

215 Days in the Life of an American Ambassador (1981), about his experiences in Bulgaria.

Diplomacy: The Role of the Wife: A Symposium in which are expressed the views of 25 experts... ed. by Herz (1981)

The Role of Embassies in Promoting Business: A Symposium, ed. by Herz (1981)

Diplomats and Terrorists: What Works, What Doesn't, ed. by Herz (1982)

The Consular Dimension of Diplomacy: A Symposium, ed. by Herz (1983)

The Vietnam War in Retrospect: Four Lectures (1983)

The Modern Ambassador: The Challenge and the Search, ed. by Herz (1983)

Understanding Austria: The Political Reports and Analyses of Martin F. Herz, Political Officer of the U.S. Legation in Vienna, 1945-48, ed. by Reinhold Wagnleitner (1984)

Ambassador Herz also contributed innumerable articles to the Foreign Service Journal, Public Opinion Quarterly, Encounter, and Commentary. Manuscripts and proof copies of many of the articles are included in the collection.

Ambassador Herz resided with his wife Elizabeth Kremenak Herz in Washington, D.C. He died on October 5, 1983.

Chronology for Martin Florian Herz

Born: New York City, July 9, 1917

Parents: Gustave L. Herz and Edith Flammerschein

Education: Columbia University, B.S. 1937


U.S. Army, Psychological Warfare Branch 1941-45

Headquarters, U.S. Forces in Austria 1945

Entered U.S. Foreign Service 1946

Third Secretary, Vienna 1946-48

Washington 1949-50

Second Secretary, Paris 1950-54

Second Secretary, Phnom Penh 1955-57

First Secretary, Tokyo 1957-59

Special Asst., Bureau of African Affairs 1960-63

Political Counselor, Tehran 1963-67

Country Director, Laos - Washington 1967-68

Counselor, Saigon 1968-70

Dep. Asst. Sec. State, Intl. Organizational Affairs 1970-74

Ambassador, Bulgaria 1974-77

Director, Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Georgetown University 1978-1983

Abbreviations used in this finding aid include: ACS - autograph card signed; ALS - autograph letter signed; ANS - autograph note signed; b/w black and white photograph; TL - typed letter; TLS - typed letter signed; TMss - typed manuscripts; TNS - typed note signed; MSS - manuscripts.

BULK DATES: 1974 - 1980
SPAN DATES: 1940 - 1983

EXTENT: 10 boxes 8.75 lf


SERIES: 1. Subject Files

SERIES: 2. Publications

SERIES DESCRIPTION: This series contains articles and papers by Amb. Herz, published in various journals. Folders may include correspondence with editors/publishers; typescripts; notes and research.

SERIES: 3. Lectures

SERIES DESCRIPTION: Contains lecture notes, outlines, scripts.

SERIES: 4. Psychological Warfare Leaflets: Information

SERIES DESCRIPTION: This series consists of correspondence with collectors, as well as reference information about the leaflets in the form of printed material and studies by various authors including Ambassador Herz.

SERIES: 5. Psychological Warfare Leaflets: Western Front

SERIES DESCRIPTION: This series of leaflets were originally pasted and bound into a scrapbook, spine imprinted, "M.F.H. Leaflets - West Front." The scrapbook covers have been saved and stored at the end of the box. The leaflets were used by U.S. and Allies against German troops during World War II. Datespan is non-specific; the majority of the leaflets were probably created and used towards the end of the war.

SERIES: 6. Psychological Warfare Leaflets: Selection

SERIES DESCRIPTION: This series of leaflets was originally bound into a scrapbook album - covers at the end of the box. Spine imprinted, "M.F.H. Leaflets - Selection."

SERIES: 7. Psychological Warfare Leaflets: Italy

SERIES DESCRIPTION: This series consists of psychological warfare leaflets originally housed in an album entitled, "M.F.H. Leaflets - Italy Combat." Album cover is at the end of this box.

SERIES: 8. Political Propaganda - Miscellaneous

SERIES DESCRIPTION: This series consists of miniature political stickers, and miscellaneous propaganda leaflets from World War II German, U.S. and the Vietnam War.

SERIES: 9. Photographs

SERIES: 10. Miscellaneous Items

SERIES: 11. Oversize Items