Section 1

St. Ignatius (Inigo de Oñaz y Loyola), 1491?-1556, was the founder of the Society of Jesus. By turns courtier, soldier, and priest, he directly or indirectly inspired the labors of the Society, shaped its formation, and both codified and exemplified the goals that have been its aim.

1 [Loyola, St. Ignatius] Exercitia spiritualia. [Rome: Blado] M.D.XLVIII.

The first edition of a book which St. Ignatius began writing at Manresa in 1522-1523; extensively revised and translated into Latin for its first publication, the Exercises not only is central to the Jesuit experience, but is also one of the great monuments in the modern history of the Church. (Woodstock)

2 Loyola, St. Ignatius. [Certification of faculties for Rev. Leonard Kessel, S.J.] [Rome?] May 22, 1551.

Kessel (1528-1574) was appointed at age 26 head of the Jesuit college in Cologne; shortly thereafter he experienced a vision of St. Ignatius, then still living in Rome. (GULSC)

3 Silver chalice and paten. England, 1550-1600?

This chalice was used over a long period in the Lancaster family home at Rock Point, Charles County, Maryland. Made in two parts, its bowl has been repaired and makers' marks deliberately obliterated. (GUC)

4 [White, Rev. Andrew, S.J.] A briefe relation of the voyage unto Maryland. [Maryland? 1634?]

The case for Fr. White's authorship of this primary account of the settlement is overwhelming, though this manuscript is at best a secretarial copy of White's holograph. Its conclusion aptly states the high hopes of the nascent colony and mission: "the place abound not alone with pfit [profit], but also with pleasure +" (MHS)

5 White, Rev. Andrew, S.J., to Lord Baltimore, Maryland, February 20, 1638.
A very long letter in which Fr. White makes a special request for the recruitment of two more Jesuits who have written to him. Of particular note is the following reference to the Indian language and "a decay of my hearing": office I have as yrLp knowes as allso in lerning the Indian language wch hath many darke gutturalls, and drowneth often the last syllable or letteth it so softely fall as itt is euen by a good eare harde to bee vnderstood." (MHS)


6 Fisher, Rev. Philip, S.J. (alias Thomas Copley), to Lord Baltimore, St. Mary's City, April 3, 1638.

Baltimore's endorsement summarizes the contents: "heerein are demands of very extrauagant priuiledges." Fisher sought, "while the gouerment is catholique" to establish the right of sanctuary; to free the Jesuits from public taxes; to work toward the establishment of an ecclesiastical court; and to "freely goe, abide and liue amonge the Sauages, wth out any licence to be had here from the Gouernor, or any other." (MHS)


7 Manuale sacerdotum. Douai: L. Kellam, 1610.

STC 16159. On five pages bound at the front are drafts of prayers, the commandments, and the precepts of the Church written by Andrew White ca. 1640 in English, Latin, and Conoy (Piscataway). These fragments are all that is known to survive of extensive works by Fr. White in the language of the Piscataways. (GULSC)

8 Silver chalice and paten. London, 1640-1641; and [Maryland? 1650-1700?]

The chalice, used at Newtown perhaps as early as the 1650's, is taken over from a secular cup bearing London marks for 1640-1641 and a maker's mark also found on Church of England communion cups. Such conversions, as well as the use of base metal, helped alleviate the scarcity of church vessels. (GUC)

9 Calvert, Caecilius, second Lord Baltimore. [Grant of land to William Britton] St. Mary's City, July 10, 1640.

The original grant for Newtown, also known as "Britton's Neck." This parcel, together with another ("Britton's Outlet"), were purchased later in the century by Rev. Henry Pelham, S.J., for 40,000 lbs. of tobacco. Together with St. Thomas and St. Inigoes manors, Newtown was one of the principal Jesuit estates in southern Maryland. (MSJ)

10 Calvert, Caecilius, second Lord Baltimore. [Grant of land to Rev. Henry Pelham, S.J. (alias Henry Warren)] St. Mary's City, February 2, 1670.

Fr. Pelham, Superior in Maryland from 1661 to 1675, held in his own name much of the Jesuit estates. This grant conveyed to Pelham 4,000 acres in "St. Thomas his Mannor" on the Potomac near present-day Port Tobacco. (MSJ)


11 Rich Neck Manor, Talbot County, Md. Ink drawing by Dr. Yolanda Frederikse, Ca. 1974.

The manor includes a small brick building (right foreground) in the style of a 17th-century chapel. It is possible that the building dates from as early as 1650, and it is also possible that it was a Catholic chapel. (Frederikse)

12 Silver ciborium with cover. [Maryland?] Ca. 1710.

The mark PE on the ciborium is not recorded in England; this is possibly the "silver challace with a cover" listed in the 1723 inventory of James Heath of Worsell Manor. The cover is a later replacement. (Carley)

13 Gerard, Thomas. [Deed of "Brambly" to Justinian Gerard] [N.p.] May 27, 1663.

The deed to "Brambly," a tract of 500 acres in St. Clement's Manor, including a detailed inventory of farm equipment and household goods; later part of the estate of the Plowdens, an early Catholic Maryland family. (GULSC)

14 Silver gilt ostensorium. [Maryland?] Ca. 1700?

The base of this otherwise unmarked piece is engraved "Ora pro Georgio Tompsono." Thompson (fl. 1658-1663) was the first Clerk of Court in Charles County, Md., and the ostensorium was probably executed at his expense or at that of one of his near descendants. (GUC)

15 Calvert, Charles, third Lord Baltimore, to George Brent, London, October 20, 1687.

An engaging attempt on Baltimore's part to recruit into Maryland his wife's son-in-law, George Brent, then residing in Virginia; Brent's relocation would be "a great credit to MaryLd." (GULSC)

16 Pewter chalice and paten. [Maryland?] Ca. 1650-1700.

Associated with the early Maryland missions by long tradition, this chalice is unusual in not being made of the customary silver and gilt; its mark RI has not been traced in England. Like the secular cup made into a chalice (8), this chalice of base metal was occasioned by the lack of suitable vessels in the missions. (GUC)

17 Montanus, Arnoldus. De nieuwe en onbekende wereld: af beschryving van America. Amsterdam: J. Meurs, 1671.

A very detailed early map of the area comprising what is now eastern Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and southern Pennsylvania, showing "Iamestowne," but not the English settlements in Maryland. (GULSC)

18 [Attwood, Rev. Peter, S.J.?] Liberty and property, or the beauty of Maryland displayed, being a brief & candid inquiry into her charter, fundamental laws and constitution. By a lover of his country. [Maryland, ca. 1717-1720]

Internal evidence suggests this essay was drafted between 1717 and 1720, when the Calverts resumed active control of the colony. Foreshadowing the Revolutionary literature of the 1770's, Attwood excoriates the Royal governors as "strangers to our Constitution" who "came to raise their own fortunes, not to advance ours." (GULSC)

19 The laws of the Province of Maryland. Philadelphia: A. Bradford, 1718.

Evans 1965. The institution of the Penal Laws after 1689 effectively reversed the position of Catholics in Maryland. A principal reason for the survival of Catholicism, however, was the official policy of permitting priests to say Mass in private homes, as shown here in an act of the session of March 26-April 15, 1707. (GULSC)

IntroductionSection II