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Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style

Table of Contents:
Books
E-books
Journal Articles (Print)
Journal Articles (Online)
Magazine Articles (Print)
Magazine Articles (Online)
Newspaper Articles
Review Articles
Websites
For More Help

The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition).  Kate Turabian created her first "manual" in 1937 as a means of simplifying for students The Chicago Manual of Style; the seventh edition of Turabian is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual. For types of resources not covered in this guide (e.g., government documents, manuscript collections, video recordings) and for further detail and examples, please consult the websites listed at the end of this guide, the handbook itself (LAU Ref Desk LB 2369 .T8 2007) or a reference librarian.

Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source. Traditionally, disciplines in the humanites (art, history, music, religion, theology) require the use of bibliographic footnotes or endnotes in conjunction with a bibliography to cite sources used in research papers and dissertations. For the parenthetical reference (author-date) system (commonly used in the sciences and social sciences), please refer to the separate guide Turabian Parenthetical/Reference List Style. It is best to consult with your professor to determine the preferred citation style.

Indicate notes in the text of your paper by using consecutive superscript numbers (as demonstrated below). The actual note is indented and can occur either as a footnote at the bottom of the page or as an endnote at the end of the paper. To create notes, type the note number followed by a period on the same line as the note itself. This method should always be used for endnotes; it is the preferred method for footnotes. However, superscript numbers are acceptable for footnotes, and many word processing programs can generate footnotes with superscript numbers for you.

BOOKS

When citing books, the following are elements you may need to include in your bibliographic citation for your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author or editor;
2. Title;
3. Compiler, translator or editor (if an editor is listed in addition to an author);
4. Edition;
5. Name of series, including volume or number used;
6. Place of publication, publisher and date of publication;
7. Page numbers of citation (for footnote or endnote).

Books with One Author or Corporate Author

Text:

Author:
Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the "lithotint" process in 1840.1

Editor:
Human beings are the sources of "all international politics"; even though the holders of political power may change, this remains the same.1

Corporate Author:
Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem.1

First footnote:

1Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

1Valerie M. Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997), 5.

1UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former
Soviet Union, edited by Alexander Zouev (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999), 44.

Note the different treatment of an editor's name depending on whether the editor takes the place of an author (second example) or is listed in addition to the author (third example). 

Subsequent footnotes:

      Method A: Include the author or editor's last name, the title (or an abbreviated title) and the page number cited.

2Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850, 50.

2Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy, 10.

2UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy, 48.

      Method B: Include only the author or editor's last name and the page number, leaving out the title.  

2Twyman, 50.

2Hudson, ed., 10.

2UNICEF, 48.

Use Method A if you need to cite more than one reference by the same author.

Endnote:

1. Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

2. Ibid.

Ibid., short for ibidem, means "in the same place."  Use ibid. if you cite the same page of the same work in succession without a different reference intervening.  If you need to cite a different page of the same work, include the page number.  For example:  2Ibid., 50.

Bibliography:

Hudson, Valerie, N., ed. Culture and Foreign Policy. Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997.

Twyman, Michael. Lithography 1800-1850. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

UNICEF. Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the
           Former Soviet Union. Edited by Alexander Zouev. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Books with Two or More Authors or Editors

First footnote:

1Russell Keat and John Urry, Social Theory as Science, 2d ed. (London: Routledge
and K. Paul, 1982), 196.

1Toyoma Hitomi, "The Era of Dandy Beauties," in Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities, eds. Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007), 157.

For references with more than three authors, cite the first named author followed by "et al." Cite all the authors in the bibliography.

1Leonard B. Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style, ed. Berel Lang (Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania Press, 1979), 56.

Subsequent footnotes:

2Keat and Urry, Social Theory as Science, 200.

2Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style, 90.

Bibliography:

Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science, 2d. ed. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982.

Hitomi, Toyoma. "The Era of Dandy Beauties." In Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities, edited by Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker, 153-165. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Meyer, Leonard B., Kendall Walton, Albert Hofstadter, Svetlana Alpers, George Kubler, Richard Wolheim, Monroe Beardsley, Seymour Chatman, Ann Banfield, and Hayden White. The Concept of Style. Edited by Berel Lang.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.  

Electronic Books

Follow the guidelines for print books, above, but include the collection (if there is one), URL and the date you accessed the material.

First footnote:

1John Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy (Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834), in The Making of the Modern World, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed June 22, 2009).  

Subsequent footnotes:

2Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy.

Bibliography:

Rae, John. Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy. Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834. In The Making of the Modern World, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed June 22, 2009).  

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

For periodical (magazine, journal, newspaper, etc.) articles, include some or all of the following elements in your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author;
2. Article title;
3. Periodical title;
4. Volume or Issue number (or both);
5. Publication date;
6. Page numbers.

For online periodicals , add:
7. URL and date of access; or
8. Database name, URL and date of access. (If available, include database publisher and city of publication.)

For an article available in more than one format (print, online, etc.), cite whichever version you used.

Journal Articles (Print)

First footnote:

1Lawrence Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 52.

Here you are citing page 52.  In the bibliography (see below) you would include the full page range: 39-56.

If a journal has continuous pagination within a volume, you do not need to include the issue number:

1John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 520.

Subsequent footnotes:

2Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," 49.   

2Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 545.

Bibliography:

Freedman, Lawrence. "The Changing Roles of Miltary Conflict."  Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 39-56.

Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor." American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 517-554.  

Journal Articles (Online)

Cite as above, but include the URL and the date of access of the article.

First footnote:

On the Free Web

1Molly Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds (accessed June 25, 2009).

Through a Subscription Database

1John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html (accessed June 25, 2009).

1Michael Moon, et al., "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 32, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189 (accessed June 25, 2009).

Subsequent Footnotes:

2Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia."

2Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 527. 

2Moon, "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," 34. 

Bibliography:

Shea, Molly. "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds (accessed June 25, 2009).

Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html (accessed June 25, 2009).

Moon, Michael, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Benjamin Gianni, and Scott Weir. "Queers in (Single-Family) Space." Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 30-7, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189 (accessed June 25, 2009).

Magazine Articles (Print)

First footnote:

Monthly or Bimonthly

          1Paul Goldberger, "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile,"
Architectural Digest, October 1996, 82.

Weekly

1Steven Levy and Brad Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," Newsweek, March 25, 2002, 45.

Subsequent footnotes:

         2Goldberger, "Machines for Living," 82.

         2Levy and Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," 46.

Bibliography:

Goldberger, Paul.  "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile." Architectural Digest, October 1996.

Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone. "Silicon Valley Reboots." Newsweek, March 25, 2002.

Magazine Articles (Online)

Follow the guidelines for print magazine articles, adding the URL and date accessed.

First footnote:

1Bill Wyman, "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble," Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://archive.salon.com/ent/tv/feature/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/index.html (accessed June 27, 2009).

1Sasha Frere-Jones, "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker, November 24, 2008, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).   

Bibliography:

Wyman, Bill. "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble." Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://archive.salon.com/ent/tv/feature/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/index.html (accessed June 27, 2009).

Frere-Jones, Sasha. "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker, November 24, 2008. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009). 

Newspaper Articles

In most cases, you will cite newspaper articles only in notes, not in your bibliography. Follow the general pattern for citing magazine articles, although you may omit page numbers.

In Print

       1Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post, February 13, 2002, final edition.

Online

       1Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post, February 13, 2002, final edition, in LexisNexis Academic (accessed June 27, 2009).

Note: In the example above, there was no stable URL for the article in LexisNexis, so the name of the database was given rather than a URL.

Review Articles

Follow the pattern below for review articles in any kind of periodical.

First footnote:

1Alanna Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard," review of Basket Case, by Carl Hiassen, New York
Times, February 3, 2002, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=105338185&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=5604&R... (accessed June 26, 2009).  

1David Denby, "Killing Joke," review of No Country for Old Men, directed by Ethan and Joel Coen, New Yorker, February 25, 2008, 72-73, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fah&AN=30033248&si...(accessed June 26, 2009). 

Second footnote:

2Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard."

2Denby, "Killing Joke."

WEBSITES

In most cases, you will be citing something smaller than an entire website. If you are citing an article from a website, for example, follow the guidelines for articles above. You can usually refer to an entire website in running text without including it in your reference list, e.g.: "According to its website, the Financial Accounting Standards Board requires ...".

If you need to cite an entire website in your bibliography, include some or all of the following elements, in this order:

1. Author or editor of the website (if known)
2. Title of the website
3. URL
4. Date of access

Example:

Financial Accounting Standards Boardhttp://www.fasb.org (accessed April 29, 2009).

FOR MORE HELP

Following are links to sites that have additional information and further examples:

Turabian Quick Guide (University of Chicago Press)

Chicago Manual of Style Online

RefWorks
Once you have created an account, go to Tools/Preview Output Style to see examples of Turabian style.

Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL)
Excellent source for research, writing and citation tips.

Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgement
Dartmouth College's guide explains why and when to cite sources and provides citation examples using APA, MLA, Science citation style and MLA's footnote and endnote style.

Citing Sources
Duke University's guide to citing sources.  The site offers comparison citation tables with examples from APA, Chicago, MLA and Turabian for both print and electronic works.

How to Cite Electronic Sources
From the Library of Congress. Provides MLA and Turabian examples of citing formats like films, photographs, maps and recorded sound that are accessed electronically.

Uncle Sam: Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications
The examples in this excellent guide from the University of Memphis are based on the Chicago Manual of Style and Kate Turabian's Manual.