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John Winkler's Drawings for The Constitutional Convention of 1787

Charles Marvin Fairchild Memorial Gallery
December 3, 2004
March 15, 2005

Introduction

Commemorating the 215 years since Congress first met under the new U.S. Constitution, which also coincides with the two-hundred fifteenth anniversary of the founding of Georgetown College, the Fairchild Gallery has presented John W. Winkler's Drawings for The Constitutional Convention Of 1787 beginning in December 2004, through March 2005.

The exhibition includes twenty-six highly accomplished preparatory drawings, of 130 completed, for Winkler’s popular 1932 etching Washington Presiding Over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, May, 1787. The etching was commissioned by the George Washington Memorial Association for a portfolio of twenty etchings by several prominent artists, in honor of the bicentennial of Washington’s birth in 1932.

John W. Winkler (1894-1979) was born in Vienna, and studied at the San Francisco Institute of Art. He was well-known for his etchings, drawings, and gold jewelry. Primarily a landscape artist, Washington Presiding Over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, May, 1787 presented a compositional challenge for Winkler, which he handled successfully. The drawings in the exhibit reveal his careful studies of the human form, placement of figures, ornamental details, and individual facial characteristics of the “Founding Fathers,” assembled into a complicated scene that emphasizes Washington’s position of respected leadership.

The Winkler drawings were a gift to the Library in 2000 from the artist’s niece and nephew, Carol Johnson and John Aronovici. On view with the drawings are an original proof of Washington Presiding Over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, May, 1787, a copper etching plate based on his studies of Benjamin Franklin, and several letters, including one from President Herbert Hoover to the president of the George Washington Memorial Association. Along with George Washington, famous historical figures featured in the exhibit include James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, Elbridge Gerry, Rufus King, Gouverneur Morris, Charles Pinckney, and Charles Thomson. On the nation’s bicentennial in 1976, Winkler’s drawings were exhibited at the Bank of America World Headquarters in San Francisco.

Gouverneur Morris

Gouverneur Morris

Black conte on wove paper
39.4 x 30.5 cm

Leader of the Pennsylvania delegation to the Constitutional Convention, Gouverneur Morris (1752-1815) shaped much of the final wording of the document; James Madison declared, “the finish given to the style and arrangement of the Constitution fairly belongs to the pen of Mr. Morris."*

*www.wikipedia.com

George Washington

Pencil on France watermark paper
37 x 28.8 cm

Following his service as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army in the War for Independence, George Washington (1732–1799) had retired to his home at Mount Vernon. In 1787, however, he led the Virginia delegation to the Constitutional Convention, and was unanimously elected the presiding officer.

Study of Charles Pinckney, delegates and two hands

Study of Charles Pinckney, delegates and two hands

Pencil on laid paper
22.8 x 29.2 cm

Charles Pinckney (1857-1824) represented South Carolina at the Constitutional Convention, and contributed to the final draft of the document.

Elbridge Gerry

Elbridge Gerry

Black conte on wove paper
30.2 x 22.3 cm

Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814), a businessman and politician in Massachusetts, refused to sign the Constitution at the Convention, but later urged its ratification in his home state.

Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton

Pencil and black conte on wove paper
30.2 x 22.5 cm

General Washington's aide-de-camp Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) represented New York at the Constitutional Convention, and argued, unsuccessfully, for greater powers for the federal government.

Benjamin Franklin (double study)

Benjamin Franklin (double study)

Brown conte on wove paper
22.3 x 30.1 cm

Author, scientist, statesman, and diplomat Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) of Pennsylvania was the oldest delegate at the Constitutional Convention. Apocryphally to Franklin is attributed the quote when, after having been asked by a curious citizen of Philadelphia what type of government had been established at the Convention, he replied, “A republic, if you can keep it.” “He is the only Founding Father who is a signatory of all three of the major documents of the founding of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris, and the United States Constitution”*

* www.wikipedia.com

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin

Black conte on wove paper
30.1 x 22.7 cm

Benjamin Franklin

copper etching plate
19.2 x 18.2 cm

Image not available

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin

Pencil on Service Linen bond paper
27.8 x 21.3 cm

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin

Black conte on wove paper
30.1 x 22.7 cm

Delegate with tobacco and bottle

Delegate with tobacco and bottle

Pencil on laid paper
26 x 25 cm

Delegate and hand study

Delegate and hand study

Pencil on wove paper
27.9 x 24.8 cm

Rufus King and Franklin's hands

Rufus King and Franklin's hands

Sepia conte and pencil on F. J. Head watermark laid paper
29.5 x 30.2 cm

Massachusetts lawyer Rufus King (1755-1827) served on the Constitutional Convention's Committee on Postponed Matters and the Committee of Style.

Study of three hands and a walking delegate

Study of three hands and a walking delegate

Pencil on F.J. Head watermark laid paper
22.9 x 28.8 cm

Study of hands

Study of hands

Pencil on wove paper
18.2 x 26.8 cm

Head studies

Head studies

Red and black conte, ink and pencil on wove paper
22.7 x 30.1 cm

Two head studies and a delegate

Two head studies and a delegate

Pencil on Van Gelder Zonen watermark laid paper
32.6 x 28 cm

Group figure study

Group figure study

Sepia conte on heavy, wove paper
24.8 x 34 cm

Group figure study

Group figure study

Blue conte on wove paper
28.8 x 37 cm

Ground study with Washington, Thompson [sic], Franklin and delegates

Ground study with Washington, Thompson [sic], Franklin and delegates

Pencil on wove paper
40.5 x 32.8 cm

Although not a delegate to the proceedings, Pennsylvania merchant Charles Thomson (1729-1824) served as secretary first to the Continental Congress and subsequently to the Constitutional Convention.

Tentative layout for Convention scene

Tentative layout for Convention scene

Black conte on watermarked laid paper
32.5 x 46.5 cm

Group figure study

Group figure study

Ink on wove paper
19.2 x 25.2 cm

Group figure study

Group figure study

Ink on tracing paper
27.8 x 36.8 cm

Washington Presiding Over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, May, 1787

etching on watermarked, laid paper
23.5 x 34.5 cm

Two groups of delegates

Two groups of delegates

Pencil, sepia conte and ink on heavy, laid paper
30.8 x 45.6 cm

Benjamin Franklin and delegates

Benjamin Franklin and delegates

Blue conte on laid paper
35.7 x 22 cm

Madison with delegates

Madison with delegates

Pencil on wove paper
23 x 29.5 cm

Virginia lawyer and farmer James Madison (1751-1836) was one of the leading instigators for the formation of a Constitutional Convention, and sometimes is known as the “Father of the Constitution.”* * www.wikipedia.com

Group study of the Convention

Group study of the Convention

Sepia conte on wove paper
28.8 x 21.6 cm

Letter from President Herbert Hoover to Arthur H. Brook, President of the George Washington Memorial Association and President of the U.S. Publishers Association

October 18, 1932

Letter from John Taylor Arms to John W. Winkler

January 20, 1932

Arms (1887-1953) was at the time one of the most accomplished etchers in the United States; the Georgetown University Library has a nearly complete collection of his works. He recommended to the George Washington Memorial Commission that Winkler be chosen to depict The Constitutional Convention of 1787 for the commemorative series of etchings of the life of George Washington.

Letter from Arthur H. Brook, President of the George Washington Memorial Association, to John W. Winkler

December 15, 1931

“Mr. Ogden” is Harry A. Ogden (1856-1936), a historical artist who was the Associate Editor for the commemorative series of etchings of the life of George Washington.

Christmas card from Arthur H. Brook, President of the George Washington Memorial Association, to John W. Winkler

1931

With reproduction of President Washington's Levée, New-York, 1789, by Harry A. Ogden; inscribed: “Dear Mr. Winkler: / I am so proud & happy that you are doing a plate for the Portfolio & wanted you have this greeting from me. Best wishes always / AB”

The George Washington Bicentennial 1732-1932, exhibit brochure

San Francisco: Bank of America World Headquarters, Concourse Gallery; July 1-30, 1976

Photograph and biography of John W. Winkler

This photograph and biography of John W. Winkler was included in the brochure the George Washington Bicentennial 1732-1932.

Washington's Mansion / Mount Vernon, VA.

Souvenir color photograph album with annotated descriptions (Washington: B. S. Reynolds Co., 1920), from the collection of John W. Winkler.

Master of Line: John W. Winkler - American Etcher

Mary Millman and Dave Bohn
Santa Barbara: Capra Press
1994

Cover illustration of John W. Winkler by E. R. Hambly, 1918.

Washington Presiding Over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, May, 1787

John W. Winkler
Copper etching plate
26.2 x 37.3 cm

Gift of Carol Johnson and John Aronovici, 2000