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May Day bumper sticker showing a red clenched fist

Detail of a bumper sticker, University Archives, Booth Family Center for Special Collections

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The Most Influential Protest You’ve Never Heard Of: May Day, 1971

Online Exhibitions
April 26, 2021
May 31, 2021

The 1971 May Day protests brought tens of thousands of anti-war demonstrators to Washington D.C., the culmination of weeks of anti-war activity in the city that spring. The announced goal of the protests was to disrupt the basic functioning of the federal government through nonviolent action; the immediate focus of the protesters was on snarling traffic to prevent government employees from getting work on Monday, May 3. Their slogan was If the government won’t stop the war, we’ll stop the government.

By the end of May 3, more than 7,000 protesters had been arrested across the city; 5000 more were arrested on May 2, 4 and 5. These represent the largest mass arrests in U.S. history. Ultimately, however, only 79 people were convicted of any offence related to the protests.

In a Washington Post article dated September 23, 2019, longtime political organizer and historian L.A. Kauffman called the event the most influential protest you’ve never heard of and noted that It contributed to helping end the Vietnam War and pioneered a new model of organizing that would shape movement after movement in the decades to come.

This exhibit illustrates the impact and aftermath of events of May 2 and 3, 1971 on the Georgetown University campus through images and documents housed in the University Archives. 

 

Red and white flyer for the May Day protest

May Day flyer: If The Government Won’t Stop the War, We’ll Stop the Government

Red and white May Day protest flyer

May Day Collective flyer

Black and white May Day organizational meeting flyer

Black and white pre May Day meeting flyer

Flyers for pre-May Day meetings on campus

Black and white Food for Peace Committee Flyer

Georgetown Food Committee’s “Food For Peace” Flyer

Black and white letter to GU students about the need to prepare for the protests

Letter from Student Government President Roger J. Cochetti, April 21, 1971

Fellow students: During the coming days and weeks, our city will be the scene of several demonstrations which are concerned about the President’s Indochina War policies. It is impossible for our campus to ignore these activities. I believe the majority sentiment at Georgetown is in sympathy with the cause which brings these citizens here. Hence we, both as an institution and as individuals, must be prepared for these upcoming events . . .

Map of DC with May Day targets marked on it

Map of DC with May Day targets marked on it

“Mayday Targets.” The Hoya, April 22, 1971

Because the targets were publicized in advance, the Nixon Administration was able to successfully deploy federal forces and prevent the protesters from paralyzing the city.

Color newspaper

Color newspaper showing map of May Day targets

Color newspaper page titled Vietnam Must Live

Color newspaper page titled Fight to Live

Color newspaper page titled maydaynavy

Color newspaper page titled Shutting It Down

Color newspaper page titled May Day

Color newspaper page titled Dawn on the Potomac

Color newspaper page titled Dawn on the Potomac

Color newspaper page with an illustration of a Native American titled If Our People Fight One Tribe at a Time All Will be Killed

Color newspaper page titled Trouble Over Bridged Waters

Color newspaper page titled Closing Down the Government

Color newspaper page titled Targets

Color newspaper page titled People's Powerful Recipes

Color newspaper page with continuation of map of targets

Color newspaper page titled People's Peace Treaty

May Day (May Flowers), [May Day Collective, 1971]

This 16 page folio tabloid is likely the source of the map of “targets” printed in The Hoya on April 22, 1971.

Editorial in student newspaper opposing the May Day protests

“May Day Opposed.” Georgetown Voice, April 27, 1971

Not all students on campus supported the protests as this editorial shows: It is a matter of general tactics and not specific beliefs that lead us to oppose the May Day activities . . .

Newspaper article

“Davis: Shut Down the Government!” The Hoya, April 30, 1971

Rennard “Rennie” Cordon Davis, a member of the Chicago 7 and one of organizers of the May Day protests, spoke to students  in Gaston Hall on April 28, 1971. The Justice Department filed conspiracy charges against him and two other activists, John Froines and Abbie Hoffman, after the protests. These charges were eventually dismissed.

Newspaper article about the scheduled absence of the GU president

“Henle Leaves, Forms Committee to Combat May Day Trouble.” The Hoya, April 30, 1971

With University President R.J. Henle, S.J. scheduled to be in Rome at the beginning of May, a six-person committee chaired by James Kelly, Georgetown’s Vice President for Administrative Affairs, was charged with coordinating the University’s response to the protests.

Black and white photograph of protestors' VW van on campus

Color photograph of protesters' van on campus

Color photograph of protesters on the athletic field

Color photograph of protesters on the athletic field

Color photograph of protesters on the athletic field

Black and white photograph of protesters tents on the athletic field

Black and white photograph of protesters tents on the athletic field

Color photograph of protesters standing on the statue of John Carroll

Protesters on campus, Sunday, May 2, 1971

Many of the protesters camped in West Potomac Park adjacent to the National Mall, about two miles east of the University, on Saturday, May 1. Early on the morning of Sunday, May 2, authorities cancelled their camping permit and the Metropolitan police compelled them to vacate the park. Some protesters left D.C.; the remainder, estimated by authorities to number around 12,000, followed the instructions of protest leaders and sought accommodation at local universities and churches. A steady stream entered Georgetown’s campus throughout the morning.

They initially set up tents on the athletic fields but after it began raining, they moved into the dorms at the invitation of students. The University consulted with the Metropolitan police and concluded that clearing campus would probably be impossible. The protesters were allowed to stay and the University opened up its dining facilities to everyone.

The visitors, who were entirely peaceful, left between 5:30 and 6 a.m. the next morning (May 3). However, some left belongings behind which the University took as a sign that they planned to return.

Archivist’s note: Photographs from May 2 and May 3, 1971 housed in the University Archives are not time stamped. As a result, the Archivist is not able to order them in strict chronological order and has opted to arrange the images in this exhibit thematically.

 

Black and white photograph showing tear gas and police in gas masks at the main gates

Black and white photograph showing students running away from tear gas

lack and white photograph showing students running away from tear gas

Tear gas at the main gates and on the east side of Lauinger Library, Monday, May 3, 1971

After 8 a.m. on the morning of Monday, May 3, protesters attempted to block traffic on Canal Road, Reservoir Road and Prospect Street. Metropolitan police responded with tear gas and pepper-based gas and drove many of them onto campus. Police helicopters also deployed gas. 

At 9:15 a.m. on Monday May 3, the University announced that the exams scheduled to begin at 9:30 were postponed. But given the short notice, it appears that some morning exams did still take place. Afternoon and evening exams were cancelled around noon because of concerns over the ability of faculty and students to reach campus and rumors of an evening curfew in the city. 

Black and white photograph of protesters at the main gates

Black and white photograph of protesters at the main gates

Black and white photograph of protesters at the main gates

Black and white photograph of protesters at the main gates

Black and white photograph of protesters at the main gates

Black and white photograph of protesters, trash cans and a car

Black and white photograph of protesters, trash cans and cars

Black and white photograph of protesters in Healy Circle

Protesters at the main gates / in Healy Circle, Monday, May 3, 1971

On May 3, unlike the previous day, food service was limited to those with a university affiliation and campus police, backed up at the University’s request by around 80 D.C. police officers, worked to systematically clear campus buildings of non-GU students and non-registered visitors and to prevent reentry by those not authorized to be on campus By 4:15, the protesters who were estimated by the University to have numbered about 2500 (student estimates place that number much higher) had left campus. There were no reports of serious personal injury and, surprisingly, property damage was quite limited.

The older gentleman (with white hair and glasses) seen mingling with protesters in the first image is Father Thomas R. Fitzgerald, S.J., then Georgetown’s Vice President for Academic Affairs.

Black and white photograph of protesters at 37th and Prospect

Black and white photograph of protesters trying to move a car

Black and white photograph of a group of protesters

Black and white photograph of protesters on 37th Street

Black and white photograph of protesters on the steps of Lauinger Library

Protesters next to Lauinger Library, Monday, May 3, 1971

Black and white photograph of student medic wearing a gas mask

Black and white photograph student medic standing in front of a crowd at the main gates

Black and white photograph student medic standing in front of a crowd at the main gates

Color photograph of a group of medics wearing home-made arm bands with a red cross on them

Black and white photograph of two student medics treating an injured man

Black and white photograph of two student medics treating the eyes of a protester who has been exposed to gas

Black and white photograph of two student medics treating an injured protester

Black and white photograph of a student medic treating an injured protester

Black and white photograph of three student medics

Student medics, Monday, May 3, 1971

During the course of the day, student marshals worked, at great personal risk, to try and keep police and demonstrators apart on campus. Students also provided medical assistance and set up an area for washing off tear and pepper gas at the Bles Building on the medical campus.

Color photograph of two policemen with batons

Black and white photograph of police in riot gear

Black and white photograph of police pushing a car out of a road

Black and white photograph of police in riot gear standing next to debris in the street

Black and white photograph of police in riot gear

Color photograph of police scooters at 34th and Prospect

Black and white photograph of police next to the Car Barn

Black and white photograph of police scooters on Prospect Street

Black and white photograph of police next to the Car Barn

Black and white photograph of police next to the Car Barn

Black and white photograph of police scooters

Black and white photograph of police scooters

Metropolitan Police in the streets around the University, Monday, May 3, 1971

Police rode motor scooters through the main gates onto campus multiple times to disperse groups of protesters in addition to deploying tear and pepper gas. There was no consultation with the University over these actions.

Color photo of troops on Wisconsin Avenue

Color photograph of a column of troops marching by the Canal

Color photograph of military jeep parked on Canal Road next to Key Bridge

Federal troops

Around 12,000 federal troops, including 4,000 paratroopers from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division, were staged at strategic points around the city. 1500 National Guardsmen were also deployed to assist the Metropolitan police. 

 

Printed diary entry

Extract from the May 3, 1971 diary entry of Eric Zengota (C’1973, G’1987). Printed in Georgetown Magazine, spring 1991

This diary entry describes the events of the morning of Monday, May 3, as experienced by a student on campus.

Page one of typed memo from the Emergency Committee

Page two of typed memo from the Emergency Committee, May 4, 1971

Page two of typed memo from the Emergency Committee, May 4, 1971

Page four of typed memo from the Emergency Committee, May 4, 1971

Memo to the Faculty, Students and Employees of Georgetown University from the University’s Emergency Committee, May 4, 1971

In this memo, the Committee relates the course of events from 6:30 a.m. on Sunday, May 2 through mid-afternoon on Monday, May 3. Note the correction to the number of protesters written by an unknown party on page 3.

One page typed letter

Letter to Fellow Students from the Student Government President Roger J. Cochetti, May 4, 1971

Mr. Cochetti, a member of the University’s Emergency Committee, lays out in this memo how he dissented from most of the decisions of that Committee.

Newspaper articles

Washington Post articles, May 8 and May 9, 1971. “24 Students Disciplined for Post-Mayday Sit-in.” Georgetown Today, May 1971

Students staged an eight-hour sit-in at the President’s Office on May 8, 1971 seeking a public apology from the University to protesters cleared from campus and donations for medical and legal fees incurred by arrested students, among other demands. 

Participants in the sit-in were initially suspended when they refused to leave at the President’s Office’s normal closing hour.  However, these suspensions were rescinded the next day. The Hoya later reported in its September 5, 1971 issue that this was done because President R.J. Henle, S.J.  was not aware that the suspensions were appealable and  “desired to avoid prolonging the issue.” The students were required to appear before a University hearing board.

Hand written flyer for May 4 protests

"May Day Lives" flyer, listing target locations for protests on Tuesday, May 4, 1971

The May 4, 1971 issue of the Evening Star reported that about 3000 protesters held a two hour rally at the Justice Department on May 3, after marching down 13th Street from Franklin Park. The rally ended with hundreds of arrests.

Newspaper article

“A Letter to Georgetown” from Georgetown President R.J. Henle, S.J. Published in The Georgetowner, May 21, 1971

Georgetown University, as well as the Georgetown Community, was a victim of circumstances over which it had little control during the Mayday demonstrations . . .

Page one of a two page typed speech

Page 2 of a two page typed speech

Text of speech given by College of Arts and Sciences Dean Royden B. Davis, S.J., at the College Tropaia ceremony, 1971

Fr. Davis reflects on the May Day events in these remarks delivered less than three weeks later.

. . . Among the invaders, our own students walked - Some with books and test papers in hand. Some with green arm bands which marked them as marshalls, of law and order. Many undistinguishable in style and appearance from those who came from without . . .

Typed one page introduction to the GU Hospital's annual report

Introduction to the Georgetown University Hospital Annual Report for 1970-1971

The fact that the events of May Day weekend are referenced in an otherwise statistics ladden report provides a sense of the significant impact of the protests on the work of the hospital.

Newspaper clipping

“Student Govt. To Sue DC Police For May Day Campus Invasion.” The Hoya, November 19, 1971

The civil suit filed on May 1, 1972 on behalf of all Georgetown students arrested or injured on May 3, 1971 sought injunctive relief for all the unlawful governmental action of last May, as well as monetary damages, according to later reporting by the Voice on September 12, 1972. There is no information in the University Archives as to the disposition of this suit.

Acknowledgments: 

Curated by University Archivist Lynn Conway

If you were on campus during the May Day protests and have memories (or memorabilia) to share, the Archivist would love to hear from you.  Her email address is: conwayl@georgetown.edu.