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[p. 251]

Conclusion

There is, I think, one temptation to which the critic of Scheeben can easily fall victim, if he be not wary. His first glance into Scheeben's work, especially the Dogmatik, discloses to him a wealth of interesting ideas, and opens up a row of attractive theological vistas. More detailed study, however, may bring a certain disillusionment. Certain of the ideas refuse the test of closer analysis, and certain of the vistas seem to end in mist. The result is a reaction. One is tempted to focus one's attention on Scheeben's shortcomings, - his inconsistencies and exaggerations, his failure to file his concepts to the requisite sharpness, his disregard for strictly philosophical argumentation, his somewhat loose eclecticism. And conversely, one is tempted to overlook the genuine values in Scheeben's work, and in his way of working.

I think that this temptation is particularly strong for the student of Scheeben's theory of faith. Though in certain respects uniquely interesting and original, it is hardly his best piece of work, - both Christology and Mariology were subjects better suited to his genius, and in them he has displayed to better advantage his own particular powers. [N]evertheless, it would be quite unfair to close one's eyes to the fact that his work on faith is a theological accomplishment of a high order. Hence I wish to conclude with a word on this positive side of the question.

In general, the outstanding value of Scheeben's work lies in the definitely inspirational order, deriving from the aims he pursued, from details of his method, and from certain of his leading ideas.

His dominant aim was of course to free the notion

[p. 252]

of faith from every species of "rationalism", and to establish its transcendent character. His pursuit of this aim imparts to his theology a certain life and warmth, and a very definite actuality. Moreover, his election and his achievement of this aim assure him a significance in the history of the treatise on faith, in that they put him at the head of the progressive abandonment of Lugonianism which has characterized post-Vatican theorizing on the subject. As a matter of fact, it is interesting to note that in this respect he was rather ahead of his time. Even Franzelin, not to speak of Alois Schmid, did not escape from a certain "nineteenth-century mentality"; but Scheeben's ideas on faith were definitely of the twentieth century.

Allied with Scheeben's dominant aim is the primary and most instructive detail of his method, namely its concreteness. To the theology of his time, and perhaps hardly less to that of our time, he read a most useful lesson by his loyal endeavor to come to grips with the actual, living, concrete reality of faith, as the divinely evoked response of the human personality to God's promise of life. And here again his work assumes an historical significance. Immediately consequent upon concreteness of his approach to the problem is the emphasis he places upon the affective side of faith. Thus he becomes in this respect the forerunner of Frins, Mazzella, Pesch, Billot, and the increasing host of other theorists who, in one way or another, have sought a solution to the problem of faith in terms of the will.

Moreover, I think that in a very definite sense Scheeben's theological instincts and aims were surer and more finely pointed than those of the majority of his successors. The reason is that his concrete method

[p. 253]

involved two other details, whose importance has not been sufficiently recognized, and whose consequences have not been rigorously enough drawn. I mean, first, his anxious desire to bring out the organic unity of the intellectual and affective elements in the act of faith, and secondly his vivid consciousness that only an analogy obtains between human and divine faith. Both of these details are decisive for the methodology of the treatise on faith, and thus for the validity of any theory that may be fashioned as to the genesis and nature of the act. In spite of the fact that Scheeben did not successfully explore the potentialities of these two ideas, it is to his lasting credit that he presented them for exploration.

In the next place, there is no doubt that both of Scheeben's fundamental ideas are extraordinarily fertile in suggestion.

On the affective side, faith was for him essentially a submission and a sacrifice. In his moments of more purely theological inspiration, the submission was that of a child, surrounding itself in complete, unquestioning, but wholly reasonable truth to the teaching of a Father. Similarly, the sacrifice was the spontaneous expression of the child's reverence and respect for its Father's will and word. Certainly this idea is most beautiful, and most true. Moreover, the background which Scheeben furnishes for this idyllic picture, - namely the great Jehovah, Creator and Lord, thundering forth His right to His creature's obedience, - is in itself just and admirable. And if at times Scheeben makes the rumblings so loud that they obscure the gentler accents of the voice of the Father Who "in these latter days has spoken to us 'ev uio" (Heb. 1, 2), nevertheless one must admit that thunders were needed at the time.

[p. 254]

Again, on the intellectual side, faith was for Scheeben essentially a participation in the knowledge of God, operated by God's own light. With the entrance of this light into the soul is begun its transformation into a "child of light", image and heir of the "Father of lights". And by effecting in the soul a likeness to God's power to knowing Himself, the light of faith confers upon it an anticipation of heaven's blessed vision. In this way Scheeben introduces into his theology of faith the central idea of his whole theology of the supernatural, namely the deiformity, the divinization of the soul which is the effect of grace. In this way too he achieves what was his supreme theological aim - the full portrayal of God's "great and precious promises" (2 Peter 1, 4). Finally, by this enthusiastic insistence on the magnificent enrichment of the mind by the gift of faith, he counterpoises in a sense his somewhat stern insistence on the "sacrifice of the intellect" which faith demands.

However, perhaps the most interesting thing of all about Scheeben's doctrine on faith is the fact that in it he has left us as it were an image of his own soul. True to the theologian's highest obligation, he lived what he wrote. In the particular type of religiosity that his temperament and training developed in him, two strains are clearly marked. The first is definitely mystical, - a deep sense of the mystery of God and of the wonders of His grace, a strong drive toward affective attachment to God's infinite perfection. The second is a very appealing childlikeness. This second strain showed itself both in the utter plainness of his external life, and in the transparent humbleness of his mind and heart. The quality of reverence had a strong hold upon him, - reverence for God, for the truth, for

[p. 255]

his own work. And a childlike sense of submission to authority was the safeguard of his richly gifted, soaring mind. Of such indeed is the Kingdom of Heaven, - the Kingdom, as he said himself, of Truth.


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

I. Scheeben's works (i.e. only those that are of direct or indirect interest to the question of faith, or of supernatural acts):

Natur und Gnade. Versuch einer systematischen Darstellung der naturlichen und ubernaturlichen Lebensordnung im Menschen. Munich 1922 (Edited with an Introduction by M. Grabmann). I cite this edition: the work was first published in 1861.

Quid est homo, sive controversiae de statu naturae purae, auctore Ant. Casino S. J. Mainz 1862 with notes by Scheeben. Cited as "Casini-Scheeben".

Die Herrlichkeiten der gottlichen Gnade. 4 AufI. Freiburg: Br. 1884. I cite this edition, the last before Scheeben's death; first edition was in 1863.

Die Mysterien des Christenthums. Wesen, Bedeutung und Zusammenhang derselben nach der in ihrem übernatürlichen Charakter gegebenen Perspektive dargestellt. Unveränderter Abdruck der Erstausgabe von 1865, hrsg. von Joseph Weiger. Mainz 1931. I cite this edition.

Handbuch der katholischen Dogmatik, Bd. I. Freiburg 1873; Bd. II, ibid. 1878.

Article "Glaube", Wetzer und Welte's Kirchenlexicon, ed. 2, Vol. 5 (1888) cols. 616-674.

Die Lehre von dem Uebernatürlichen. Katholik 1860 I, 280-301; 657-675.

Ueber den Unterschied und das Verhältnis von Philosophie und Theologie, Vernunft und Glauben. Katholik 1863 1, 641-665; II, 267-300.

Review of A. Schmid's "Wissenschaftliche Richtungen" (cf. infra). Katholik 1863 I, 89-99. Unsigned; for Scheeben's authorship cf. ibid. 1868 I, 491.

Eine Kritik der Kuhn'schen Theologie durch Herrn v. Schazler. Katholik 1865 II, 280-297. Unsigned; for Scheeben's authorship cf. ibid. 1868 I, 486.

Review of v. Schäzler's "Neue Untersuchungen" (cf. infra). Katholik 1868 I, 484-502; 689-730.

Wissenschaft und Autorität. (Review of A. Schmid's book of the same title). Katholik 1868 II, 393-404.

Die neueste Gnadenlehre Kuhn's (review of Kuhn's "Die christliche Lehre von der göttlichen Gnade"). Katholik 1868 II, 552-590.

Das Oekumenische Concil vom Jahre 1869: Periodische Blätter zur Mitteilung und Besprechung der Gegenstände, welche sich auf die neueste Kirchenversammlung beziegen. Regensburg 1870-1871 (Vols. I to III).

Periodische Blätter zur Besprechung der grossen religiösen Fragen der Gegenwart. Regensburg 1872-1882 (Continuation of former periodical, Vols. VI-XI).

The following articles are to be noted:

Das allgemeine Concilium und die Wissenschaft. Bd. I (1869), 100-118.

Die Infallibilitätshetze. Ed. I (1869), 229-242.

Die dogmatische Constitution de fide catholica. II (1870), 118-138.

Erläuterungen zu der dogmatischen Constituion de fide catholica. II (1870) 217-285.

Die erste dogmatische Constitution über den Primat. II (1870), 303-333; 341-387.

Die Bewegung gegen den päpstlichen Unfehlbarkeit in Deutschland. II (1870), 416-430.

Die theologische und praktische Bedeutung des Dogmas von der Unfehlbarkeit des Papstes, besonders in seiner Beziehung auf die heutige Zeit: 2.

Die Unfehlbarkeit des Papstes und der katholische Glaube. III (1871), 505-546.

Beitrage zur Characteristic der modernen Haresie und der durch dieselbe bedingten Aufgabe der Kirche in unserer Zeit. IV (1872), 1-14; 53-75; 129-141; 228-241.

Der Liberalismus also System vom theologischen Gesichtspunct betrachtet. VII (1875), 172-192; 258-282; 289-302; 449-472.

Gedanken uber das christliche Autoritatsprinzip und seine Bedeutung fur unsere Zeit. X (1878), 1-9; 49-64; 97-112; 155-168; 204-220; 241-267.

N.B. I could not establish with certainty Scheeben's authorship of the last three articles, above named.

II. Biographical and critical:

Hertkins, J. Professor Dr. M. J. Scheeben: Leben und Wirken eines katholischen Gelehrten im Dienste der Kirche. Paderborn 1892.

Höveler, P. Vier Charakterbilder aus der jüngsten Kölner Kirchengeschichte (on Scheeben pp. 51-94). Dusseldorf 1899.

Shorter notices in Allg. Deutche Biog. 30, 663-664; Kirchl. Handlex. 2, 1953; Kirchenlex. 10, 1763-5; Catholic Encyclopedia 13, 525.

Necrologues: Jahresbericht der Görresgesellschaft 188, 10 (T. Pesch); Lit. Handweiser 27 (1888), 466 ff. (F. Hulskamp); Katholik 1888 II, 112-132 (collec-tion of testimonies from Hülskamp; Pingsmann, Höveler).

Interesting reviews of Dogmatik I: Gutberlet, Lit. Rundschau 1/2 (1876), 10-17; 41-50 (apparently envisaged by Scheeben in Dogmatik II, Vorrede); Hurter, Innsbr. Zeitschr. 1878 II, 572-579; Katholik 1884 I, 188-210 (anonymous, - of all three volumes).

Brosch, H., Das Werden des jungen Scheeben. St. d. Zeit 123 (1932), 395-408.

Dorneich, J., Matthias Joseph Scheeben und Benjamin Herder aus ihrem Briefwechsel (1861-1888). Tub. Th.. Quartals. 1936, 27-68.

Eschweiler, K., cf. infra.

Grabmann,_ M., Scheeben's theologisches Lebenswerk. Introduction to the Natur und Gnade (Munich 1922), 1-28.

Hofer, J., was ist uns Priestern Scheeben? Sanctificatio nostra 6 (1935), 97-102.

Wilms, H., 0. P. Matthias Joseph Scheeben: Theologus Coloniensis. Angelicum 1935, 518-530.

Matthias Joseph Scheeben: Der Erneuerer katholischer Glaubenswissenschaft. Hrsg. vom katholischen Akademikerverband. Mainz 1935. Beiträge: M. Schmaus, Die Stellung Scheebens in der Theologie des 19. Jahrhunderts; M.Grabmann, Scheebens Auffassung vom Wesen und Wert der theologischen Wissenschaft; K. Feches, Die Stellung der Gottesmutter in der Theo-logie Scheebens; W. Pingsmann, Nekrog; F. Münch, Einführung.

Mathias Joseph Scheeben (1835-1935). Alumno suo eximio centesimo ipsius redeunte natali Collegium Germanicum-Hungaricum. Contents: F. Konig, De Matth. Jos. Scheeben; H. Schauf, Die Lehre von der Einwohnung des hl. Geistes bei Karl Passaglia und Klemens Schrader; A. Eross, Die Herrlichkeiten der gottlichen Gnade: Scheebens Gnadenlehre in ihrer ersten Fassung.

III. Scheeben's sources (i.e. works cited, or referred to in his bibliographies, when dealing with faith. I have completed his always sketchy references with full title, edition etc. For his own judg-ment of the author in question, cf. his history of theology, Dogmatik I, 1, nn. 1027-1120).

A. Patristic: not prominent in the matter of faith. He cites incidentally, and in brief tags: Basil, Chrysostom, Augustine, Clement of Alexandria, Maximus Confessor.

B. Scholastic:

Albertus Magnus, Opera, ed. Borgnet, Paris 1890-1899.

Alexander Halensis, Summa Theologica, I-III Quaracchi 1924-30; IV Lyons 1516.

Guglielmus Parisiensis, Opera, Venice 1591. Lib. 1, de fide et legibus.

Bonaventura, Opera, Quaracchi 1882-1902. Vol. 3 de Virtutibus.

Petrus Lombardus, Sententiae, Quaracchi 1916.

Scotus, Reportata Pariensia, Paris 1517-8.

Thomas Aquinas, In III. Sent., Rom 1620. Vol. VII. QQ. Disp. de Veritate, ibid. Vol. VIII. Summa Theologica, Rome, 1894.

Banez, Scholastica commentaria in II-II. Douai 1615. Cajetanus, Commentaria in II-II, Venice 1596. Cano, Loci theologici. Vienna 1754.

Capreolus, Defensiones theologiae in quattuor libros Sententiarum. Venice 1514-7.

Esparza Arieda, Cursus theologicus. Lyons 1666. (Vol. I. lib. 6 de fide).

Frassen, Scotus academicus. Rome 1900-2.

Gillius, Commentationum theologicarum de sacra doctrina et essentia atque (de) unitate Dei libri duo. Cologne 1610. (Lib. 1, tract. 1-4 de fide).

Haunold, Theologia speculativa. Ingolstadt 1670. (Lib. 3 de fide).

Kilber, De fide. Migne, Cursus theol. VI, 435-652. Lanfranc de Pompignan, Controverse pacifique sur la foi des enfants et des adultes ignorants. Migne, Cursus theol. VI, 1070-1560.

Lugo, De Fide, Venice 1718.

Maurus, Sylvester, Opus theologicum. Rome 1687. (Vol. II de fide).

Meyer, Livinius, Historia congregationum de divinae gratiae auxiliis. Venice 1742.

Perez, Antonio. In IIm et IIIm partem D. Thomae tractatus sex. Lyons 1659. (Tract. 4 de virt. theol.).

Philip of the Holy Trinity, Summa theologiae thomisticae. Lyons 1653.

Reding, Theologia scholastica universa. Einsiedeln 1687.

Ripalda, De ente supernaturali. Paris (Vives) 1871-2.

Salmanticenses, Cursus theologicus Summam Theologicam d. Thomae angelici complectens. Paris 1871-85.

Soto, Dominicus, De natura et gratia. Venice 1547.

Stapleton, Principiorum fidei doctrinalium demonstratio methodica. Paris 1579.

Suarez, Opera omnia. Paris (Vives) 1858 ff. (Vol. XII de fide; Vols VII-X de gratia).

Tanner, Theologiae scholasticae tomi tres. Ingolstadt 1627. (Vol. II de fide).

Valentia, Gregory of, Commentariorum theologicorum tomi quattuor. Venice 1608. (Vol. III de fide).

id. Analysis fidei theologicae. Ingolstadt 1585.

Vasquez, Gabriel, Commentaria et disputationes in I-IIm s.Thomae. Lyons 1631.

Ysambert, Commentarius in s.Thomae Summam. Paris 1638-48.

C. Others:

Denziger H., Vier Bücher von der religiösen Erkenntnis. 2 Bde. Würzburg 1856-7.

Grater A., Erkenntnis Gottes (tr. K. Pfahler et al.). 2 Bde. Regensburg 1858.

Habert, I., Theologiae Graecorum Patrum vindicatae circa universam materiam gratiae Libri tres. Paris 1646.

Kleutgen, J., S. J., Theologie der Vorzeit. 1. Aufl. Bd. 3, Münster 1860; 2. Aufl. Bd. 5, ibid. 1874.

von Schäzler, C., Natur und Uebernatur: das Dogma von der Gnade und die theologische Frage der Gegenwart. Mainz 1865.

id. Neue Untersuchungen über das Dogma von der Gnade und das Wesen des christlichen Glaubens. Mainz 1865.

IV. A. The literature on the act of faith is enormous. Hence on the subject itself, I can only refer to the following bibliographies:

Lang, A., Die Wege der Glaubensbegründung bei den Scholastikern des xiv. Jahrhunderts. Beitrage z. GCSEs. d. Phil. u. Theol. d. MA. XXX 1/2, (Munster 1933), pp. xv-xx.

Englhardt, G., Die Entwicklung der dogmatischen Glaubenspsychologie in der mittelalterlichen Scholastik. Beitrage XXX, 4-6, (Munster 1928), pp. 487-496.

Lang, H., O.S.B., Die Lehre des hl. Thomas von Aquin von der Gewissheit des übernatürlichen Glaubens (Augsburg 1929), pp. 194-200.

Gardeil, A., O.P. art. Credibilite, Vacant, DTC III, 2308-2309.

B. In what follows, I gather 1) a few works of value to the present study, and 2) some recent literature, largely periodical, dealing with faith itself:

Adam, K., Glaube und Glaubenswissenschaft im Katholizismus, 1. Aufl. Rottenburg 1920. (Sharply criticised by J. N. Espenberger, Theol. Revue 1920, 193-195; cf. also Lit. Handw. 1921, 541). 2. Aufl. ibid. 1924. (Sharply criticised for "irrationalism and illuminism" by J. Stufler, S.J. in Zeits. f. kath. Theol. 48 (1924), 1-34: Der Gewissheitsgrund des göttlichen Glaubens. Adam answered: Tub. Theol. Q. Schr. 104 (1924), 60-79. The clash is interesting as a repetition of the Scheeben vs. Kleutgen clash, - the same two men-talities are engaged, and the argument moves largely in parallel lines).

Adam K., Die katholische Tübingen Schule. Hochland 24 (1927), 594 ff.

Boisselot, P., La Lumière de la foi. Vie Spir. 41 (1934), 34-35. La foi, connaissance affective. Ibid. 81-95. (Some ideas on connaturality, and cognition "per viam voluntatis").

Charles, P., S.J., Le Concile du Vatican et l'acte de foi. Nouv. Rev. Theol. 52 (1925), 513-536. (Doctrine of Vatican, against Hermes, on the intellectual supernaturality of faith, as well as its liberty).

Chenu, M.D., P. Le psychologie de la foi dans la théologie du xiiime siècle. Etudes d'histoire littéraire et doctrinale du xiiime siècle, II, 163-191. Publications de l'Institut d'Etudes Médiévales d'Ottawa. Paris 1932. Cf. Nouv. Rev. Theol. 61 (1934), 604-615.

Chenu, M.D., O.P. Pro supernaturalitate fidei illustranda. Xenia Thomistica III (1925), 297-307.

Chenu M.D., O.P. Les yeux de la foi. Rev. Domin. 38 (1932), 653-660.

Chenu, M.D., O.P. Position de la Théologie. A la memoire de M.J. Scheeben de qui l'on célèbre le centenaire: 1835-1935. Rev, d. Sc. Phil. et Theol. 24 (1935), 232-257. (Nothing directly about Scheeben).

Chenu, M.D., O.P. La théologie comme science au xiiime siècle. Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du moyen age, II. Paris 1927.

Chenu, M.D., O.P. L'amour dans la foi. Bull. Thom. Janvier 1932, 97. (All of M. Chenu's work is interesting, not only by reason of his sensitive historical scholarship, but also because of the particular "school" (sit venia!) in theology and in Thomistic thought that he represents).

Dulau, P., Le pensée de Suarez et celle des Salmanticenses dans la question "de ultima fidei resolutione": l'opinion de P. Harent. Rev. Thom. nouv. ser. 9 (1926), 517-522. (Differs with Harent's interpretation of Suarez).

Dunin-Borkowski, S. von., S.J. I. Der Glaube an das menschliche Zeugnis in psychologischer Beleuchtung. St. d. Zeit 108 (1925), 433-447. II. Der ubernatürliche Glaubensakt nach seinem seelischen Aufbau. Ibid. 109 (1925), 281-293. (Two very interesting articles, concerned largely with the psychological process involved in the transition from scientific faith to the simple faith of authority; emphasizes necessity of new affective motivation, and the influx of the material object and the person of the speaker).

Eschweiler, K., Die Zwei Wege der neueren Theologie: Georg Hermes - Matthias Joseph Scheeben. Eine kritische Untersuchunge des Problems der theologischen Erkenntnis. Augsburg 1926. (A curious book, biassed, unhistorical, but with some interesting ideas; he touches on Scheeben's failure to integrate the affective and intellectual aspects of faith, but suggests a more than doubtful "completion" in terms of the "desiderium naturale videndi Beum". Devastating review by H. Lange, S. J., Scholastik 1 (1926), 436-446. Controversy arose with J. Stufler, S.J., apropos of S.'s even more devastating review, Zeitsch. f. kath. Theol. 50 (1926), 326-336. Eschw., Bonner Zeits. f. Theol. u. Seels. 3 (1926) 260-276. Stuf. ZKT 51 (1927), 35-59: Molinismus und neutrale Vernunfttheologie. Eschw. Bonn. Ztschr. 4 (1927), 155-160. Stuf., ZKT 51 (1927), 555-561: Schlussbemerkungen zur kontroverse. More favor-able rev. by K. Adam; Theol. Rev. 25 (1926), 321-326).

Elorriaga, A.M. de la, S.J. De la afirmacion del objeto formal en el acto de la f6 divina. Gregorianum 10 (1929), 537-574. (Negative opinion).

Engert, J., Studien zur theologischen Erkenntnislehre. Regensburg 1926. (pp. 65 ff.: ideas on psycho-logical structure of faith in S. Thomas).

Faulhaber, L., Das Wunder als Kriterium der Offen-barung: Kritische Anmerkungen uber seine Erkennbarkeit. Tüb. Theol. Q. Schr. 113 (1932), 1-11. (Concerned with "veritas philosophica"; appeals for less "Beweisfreudigkeit").

Faulhaber, L., Einsicht und Glaube in ihren Gegenseitigen Beziehungen. Bamberg, 1933. (Ideas on free certitude; cf. Zeit. f. kath. Theol. 57 (1933), 618-622).

Frins, V., S.J. Einflusss des Formalobjectes des Glaubens auf den übernatürlichen Glaubensakt. Katholik 1866 I, 603-618. (Forerunner of C. Pesch, S.J.)

Garrigou-Lagrange, R.L O.P. La surnaturalité de la foi. Rev. Thom. 22 (1914), 17-38.

Garrigou-Lagrange, R., O.P. La surnaturel essentiel et le surnaturel modal selon S. Thomas. Rev. Thom. 21 (1913), 316-327.

Garrigou-Lagrange, R., O.P. La mystique et la doctrine de S. Thomas sur la foi. Vie Spir. 1 (1919-1920), 360 ff.

Geiselmann, J., Die Glaubenswissenschaft der katholischen Tübingen Schule in ihrer Grundlegung durch Joh. Seb. v. Drey. Tüb. Theol. Q. Schr. 3 (1830), 49-117.

Goyau, G., L'Allemagne religieuse: Le Catholicisme, t. IV: 1848-1870 ed. 2 Paris 1909.

Guardini, R., Vom Leben des Glaubens. Mainz 1935.

Guibert, J. de., S.J. Les Doublets de S. Thomas d'Aquin. Paris 1926.

Gutberlet, C., Review of J. Kleutqen S.J., Beilagen III. Lit. Rund. Schau 4 (1877) 103-110. Regrets K's sharp critique of Scheeben: points out their different theological mentalities: attempts defense of Lugo).

Heibert, P., Joseph Kleutgen S.J. Katholik 1883 II, 523-560.

Hocedez, E., S.J., Valeur religieuse de l'acte de foi. Gregorianum 15 (1934), 377-418.

Huby, J., S.J., Le discourse d'après le Cène. La connaissance de la foi chez S. Jean. Paris 1932.

Kleutqen J., S.J., Beilagen zu den Werken über die Philosophie und Theologie der Vorzeit, III. Heft, 2. Abt.: Zur Lehre vom Glauben. Munster 1875.

Kuhn, J., Katholische Dogmatik, 2. Aufl., I, Bd. 2 Abt. Tubingen 1862.

Kuhn, J., Glauben und Wissen nach S. Thomas. Tub. Theol. Q. Schr. 42 (1860), 273-386.

Kuhn, J., Ueber Glauben und Wissen, mit Rüchsicht auf extreme Ansichten der Gegenwart. Tubingen 1859.

Lakner, F. S.J., Kleutgen und die kirchliche Wissen-schaft Deutschlands im 19. Jahrhundert. Zeit. f. kath. Theol. 57 (1933), 161-214.

Lang, H., O.S.B., Verstand und Glaubensakt nach Thomas von Aquin. Tüb. Theol. Q. Schr. 104 (1924), 192-225. (Takes a hand in the Adam-Stufler con-troversy).

Lauck, W., S.J., Die psychologischen Schwierigkeiten des Glaubensakt. St. d. Zeit 110 (1926), 363-369. (Negligible).

Lebreton, J., S.J., La connaissance de foi. Etudes 117 (1908), 731 ff.

Lennerz, H., S.J., Ist jede Zustimmung wegen der Autorität Gottes ein Glaubensakt? Scholastik 4 (1929), 572-576.

Lennerz, J., S.J., De vero sensu principii "actus specificatur ab objecto formali". Gregorianum 17 (1936), 143-146. (In reply to R. Garrigou-, Lagrange, O.P., Actus specificatur ab objecto formali: de universalitate hujusce principii. Acta Pont. Acad. Rom. s. Thom., Rome 1935, 139 ff.)

Lercher, L., S.J. P. Joseph Kleutgen S.J.: Sein Leben und seine literarische Wirksamkeit. Regensburg 1910

Marcel, G., Réflexions sur la foi. Vie intell. 31 (1934), 357-373.

Masure, P., Le traîté de la foi. Rev. Apol. 59 (1934), 656-676. (Defends Rousselot's opinion).

Mathis, M., The Pauline "pistis-upostasis" according to Hebrews II, 1. Washington 1920.

Mausbach, J., Die ausserordentlichen Heilswege für die gefallene Menschheit und der Begriff des Glaubens, III. Begriff und Entstehung des theologischen Glaubens. Katholik, 1900, 401 ff. (Opinion of Frins).

Merkens, P., Zur Phänomenologie des Glaubens. Phil. Jahrb d. Görresges. 1926, 345-360; 1927, 9-22. (Some interesting ideas on authority).

Neveut, E., La foi chrétienne: son caractère surnaturel. Rev. Apol. 56, (1933), 187-208. (Not significant; holds specification by formal object).

Peghaire, J., Essai critériologique sur l'acte de foi naturelle, Rev. Univ. Ottawa 4 (1934), 5-33. (Negligible).

Pesch, T., S.J., Review of Kleutgen's Theologie der Vorzeit, III. Bd. St. aus ML 8 (1875), 346-352. (Good estimate of Kleutgen's general character).

Pesch, C., S.J., Die Lehre des hl. Thomas über dem Glaubensakt. Zeits. f. kath. Theol. 1884, 50-70.

Pinard de la Boullaye, H., S.J., Notion et problemes de la credibilite. Rech. d. Sc. Rel. 4 (1913), 443-467. (Extended discussion of A. Gardeil, O.P., La credibilite et l'apologetique, ed. 2).

Foulpiquet, de, Volonte et foi. Rev. d. Sc. Phil. et Theol. 4 (1910), 438 ff. (Negligible).

Schäzler, C. von, Die ersten Glaubensbeschlüsse des vaticanischen Concils und die religiösen Bedürfnisse der Gegenwart. Freiburg i. Br. 1870.

Schagenhaufen, F., S.J:, Die Glaubensgewissheit und ihre Begründung in der Neuscholastik. Zeits. f. kath. Theol. 56 (1932), 313-374. 530-595.

Schmid, A., Wissenschaftliche Richtungen auf dem Gebiete des Katholizismus in neuester und gegenwärtiger Zeit. Munich 1862. (Distinguishes six schools: Hermes, Gunther, traditionalists, Baader, Catholic Tubingen, Neo-scholastic, - S. himself against this last).

Schmid, A., Wissenschaft und Autorität. Munich 1867. (S's answer to v. Schäzler, who had attacked him for his attempted reconciliation of the Kuhn-v. Schazler controversy, - Schmid was a "moderate").

Schmid, A., Ueber Natur und Gnade, mit Rücksicht auf die Theorien von J. Kleutgen und M.J. Scheeben. Tüb. Theol. C. Schr. 1862, 3-49. (Sympathetic to Scheeben's Natur und Gnade, though with certain reserves; Schmid was not overly scholastic).

Schumpf, M., O.P., Der Glaubensbegriff des Hebräerbriefes und seine Deutung durch den hl. Thomas v. Aquin. Divus Thom. (Friburg) II (1933), 397-410.

Schutt, P., S.J., Das Verhältnis von Vernünftgkeit und Göttlichkeit des Glaubens bei Suarez, historisch und spekulativ untersucht. Warendorf i. Westf. 1929. (Gives ordinary critique of Suarez; traces his fundamental error to an identification of "perspicientia" and "assensus"; proposes Pesch's theory as best).

Schwendinqer, F., O.F.M., De analysi fidei juxta Joannem Duns Scotum. Antonianum 6 (1931), 417-440. (Interesting).

Schwendinger, F., O.F.M., Die Lösung des Problems der analysis fidei. Theol. u. Glaube 24 (1932), 26-42. (Interesting distinction between logical and psychogenetic factors in faith).

Stolz, A. O.S.B., Glaubensgnade und Glaubenslicht nach Thomas von Aquin. Studia Anselmiana I, Rome 1933. (Very interesting and valuable; but cf. contra, Mitzka S.J. in Zeits. f. kath. Theol. 58 (1934), 258 ff.).

Stolz, A. O.S.B., Theologie der Mystik. Regensburg 193

6.

Straub, A., S.J., De analysi fidei. Innsbruck 1922. (Cf. the controversy: Dorholt, Divus Thom. Fribourg, (1924), 488, ff.; Straub, Zeitschr. f. kath. Theol. 49 (1925), 450-465 Dorholt, Div. Thom. 4 (1926), 107.; Straub, ZKT 50 (1926), 454-463.).

de la Taille, M., S.J., L'oraison contemplative. Rech. d. Sc. Rel. 9 (1919), 273-292. (Extraordinarily interesting analogy between the genesis of faith and the genesis of contemplation).

de la Taile, M., S.J., Theories mystiques d'apres un livre recent. Rech. d. Sc. Rel. 18 (1928), 297-322 (On faith, cf. especially 301-322; the primacy of the affective element).

Valensin, A., S.J., Pour une theorie de la croyance. Arch. d. Phil. IV, cah. 2, 12-15. (Extremely interesting; establishes validity of belief in terms of perceived obligation of accepting it).

Werner, K., Geschichte der katholischen Theologie in Deutschland seit dem Trienter Konzil bis zur Gegenwart. Munich 1866. (Scheeben's review: Katholik 1867 1, 155-186).

INDEX OF SUBJECTS

Church, finality of, 15; 19; 20; 21; 22; 37; liberty of, 3; 20; primacy of, 19 ff; relation to state of, 2; 3; 8; 9; 11-15; 19-22; 25-26; 28-29; 33-39; 42, fn 6-12; 43, fn 15; 45, fn 26; 46, fn 29; 47, fn 30; 48, fn 32, 33; spiritual power of, 11; 15; temporal impact of, 8; 11-15.

Classic, We Hold These Truths as, 3; classical status of Aquinas, 10-15; as described by H. G. Gadamer, 49, fn 35.

Creator, dependence on, 16-17; 19; 44, fn 26; 107-112; 118; 146-147; 169-170; 253; faith as obedience to, 16-19; 26; 30; 108; 147-148; 158-159; 164-169; 175; 177; 253-255; "natural" order, from, 22; 35-36; 106-107.

Ethics, social, 2; 3; 5; 8; 10; 19; 22; 28-29; 33; 38; 39; 40; 46, fn 29.

Faith, affective dynamic in, 5; 17-18; 27-28; 45, fn 28; 81-82; 101-102; 106-107; 115-119; 123-125; Ch. III; 191-192; 195; 208; 210; 220; 232; 244-246; 252-254; freedom of, 9; 27; 146; 150; 157-161; 164; 173; 174; 176; 224; 244; grace of, 9; 18; 27; 30; 31; 32; 33; 37; 41, fn 5; 65; 67-74; 76; 81; 100; 109; 120; 123; Ch. V.

Finality, in act of faith, 6; 10; 16-19; 80-86; 172-177; 224; of the Church, 19-23; 29; 34; of the state, 12; 15; 19-23; 33-37.

Fundamental Theology, 2; 3; 40; 41, fn 3; 42, fn 13.

God as Last End, 15-19; 26-30; 50, fn 50; 80-86; 172-177; 223-224.

Heresy, relation of Church to, 12; 21; relation of state to, 21; spirit and principle of, 145.

Liberalism, 10; 22-26; 44, fn 21; 141-148; 167; 169; 224.

Revelation, as divine command, 16; 19; 108; 149; 152; 159; 161-167; 172; 197; 199; 212; 223-224.

INDEX OF NAMES

Aquinas, T., 3; 4; 6; 10; 11; 12; 13; 15; 18; 19; 38; 45, fn 27; 55; 66; 75; 76; 80; 81; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87, fn 7, 9; 88, fn 14; 89, fn 22; 90, fn 31, 32; 91, fn 33; 93, fn 48, 49; 50, fn 50, 53, 55, 56; 95, fn 57, 59, 60; 96, fn 61, 62, 63; 103; 121; 122; 130, fn 9; 133, fn 35; 172; 173; 174; 175; 178; 189, fn 115, 116; 190, fn 124; 236; 241; 244; 245; 246; 261; 262; 266; 267; 268; 270.

Augustine, A., 8; 9; 126.

Bellarmine, R., 11; 12; 47, fn 30; 49, fn 36 ff. Bernardin, J., 2; 42, fn 9. Burgess, F., 46, fn 29; 48, fn 32, 33. Burghardt, W., 47, fn 29, 30.

Chenu, M. - D., 4; 84; 87, fn 2; 95, fn 59; 96, fn 64; 230 fn 70; 264 n; 265 n.

Coleman, J., 46, fn 29.

Connell, F., 48, fn 32.

Curran, C., 47, fn 29; 52 fn 94.

de la Taille, M., 94, fn 56; 117; 270 n. Dulles, A., 6; 41 fn 3; 44 fn 23. Fenton, J., 48 fn 32. Fogerty, G., 48 fn 32. Gadamer, H. G., 49, fn 35. Gardeil, A., 135, fn 70; 263 n. Goerner, E., 46, fn 29; Hehir. B., 47, fn 29. Higgins, G., 47 fn 29.

Hollenbach, D., 46-47, fn 29; 53, fn 94. Hocedez, E., 2; 95, fn 56; 267 n. Hooper, J., 47, fn 29; 53-54, fn 94. Hunt, G., 42, fn 8.

John of Paris, 11; 12; 13; 14; 15.

Kleutgen, J., 56; 57; 153; 168; 170; 171; 177; 181, fn 15; 189, fn 119; 208; 209; 229, fn 56; 263 n; 267 n.

Latourelle, R., 6; 41, fn 3; 43, fn 21.

Lennerz, H., 2; 41, fn 2; 268 n. Love, T., 8; 47, fn 30; 49, fn 33. McCool, G., 9; 39; 44, fn 22. McManus, W., 47, fn 29. Neuhaus, R., 45, fn 26. Ottaviani, A., 48, fn 32, 33.

Pelotte, D., 1; 7; 8; 43, fn 15; 46, fn 28. Regan, R., 46, fn 29.

Rohr, J., 42, fn 11; 46, fn 29; 47, fn 29. Rousselot, P., 95, fn 60; 111-112; 133, fn 36, 50. Schleiermacher, F., 44, fn 26. Schoof, T., 4; 43, fn 16. Sebott, R., 46, fn 29.

Stirnimann, H., 6; 41, fn 3. Tillich, P., 6; 44, fn 25. Whelan, C., 47, fn 29.